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CBSE Class 10 - Science


CBSE X - Set -1

Time allowed: 180 minutes; Maximum Marks: 90

General Instructions:
1)  All questions are compulsory.
2) The question paper consists of 42 questions divided into 4 sections A, B, C and D. Section A comprises questions of 01 mark each, Section B comprises questions of 02 marks each, Section C comprises questions of 03 marks each and Section D comprises questions of 05 marks each.
3)  All questions in Section A are to be answered in one word, one sentence or as per the exact requirement of the question.
4) There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided wherever necessary.You have to attempt only one of the alternatives in all such questions.
5)  In question on construction, drawing should be near and exactly as per the given measurements.
6) Use of calculators is not permitted.


Question 1

1. Write the number of vertical columns in the modern periodic table. What are these columns called?

Question 2

2. Give the respective scientific terms used for studying :

(i) the mechanism by which variations are created and inherited.

(ii) the development of new type of organisms from the existing ones.

Question 3

3. Water is a valuable resource. List two ways, that you would suggest every family member to save this resource.

Question 25

25. When you add about 2 ml of acetic acid to a test tube containing an equal amount of distilled water and leave the test tube to settle after shaking its contents, what will you observe in the test tube after about 5 minutes?

1. A white precipitate settling at its bottom
2. A clear colourless solution
3. A layer of water over the layer of acetic acid
4. A layer of acetic acid over the layer of water

Question 26

26. A student adds a few drops of ethanoic acid to test tubes X, Y and Z containing aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate, respectively. If he now brings a burning splinter near the mouth of the test tubes immediately after adding ethanoic acid in each one of them, in which of the test tube or test tubes the flame will be extinguished?

1. X and Y
2. Y and Z
3. X and Z
4. only Z

Question 27

27. In order to study saponification reaction, we first prepare 20% solution of sodium hydroxide. If we record the temperature of this solution just after adding sodium hydroxide flakes to water and also test its nature using litmus, it may be concluded that the process of making this solution is

1. exothermic and the solution is alkaline
2. endothermic and the solution is alkaline
3. endothermic and the solution is acidic
4. exothermic and the solution is acidic

Question 28

28. While studying saponification reaction for the preparation of soap, a teacher suggested to a student to add a small quantity of common salt to the reaction mixture. The function of common salt in this reaction is to

1. reduce the alkalinity of the soap
2. reduce the acidity of the soap
3. enhance the cleansing capacity of soap
4. favour precipitation of soap

Question 29

29. A student takes about 6 ml of distilled water in each of the four test tubes P, Q, R and S. He then dissolves an equal amount of four different salts namely, sodium chloride in 'P', potassium chloride in 'Q', calcium chloride in 'R' and magnesium chloride in 'S'. Next, he then adds 10 drops of soap solution to each test tube and shakes its contents. The test tubes in which scum (insoluble substance) is formed with soap are:

1. P and Q
2. Q and R
3. R and S
4. Q and S

Question 30

30. A student has obtained the image of a distant object with a concave mirror to determine its focal length. If he has selected a well-illuminated red building as object, which of the following correctly describes the features of the image formed?

1. Virtual, inverted and diminished image in red shade
2. Real, erect and diminished image in pink shade
3. Real, inverted and diminished image in red shade
4. Virtual, erect and enlarged image in red shade

Question 31

31. A student has obtained an image of a distant object on a screen to determine the focal length F1 of the given lens. His teacher, after checking the image, gave him another lens of focal length F2 and asked him to focus the same object on the same screen. The student found that to obtain a sharp image, he has to move the lens away from the screen. From this finding, we may conclude that both the lenses given to the student were :

1. Concave and F1 < F2
2. Convex and F1 < F2
3. Convex and F1 > F2
4. Concave and F1 > F2

Question 32

32. Study the following four experimental set-ups I, II, III and IV for the experiment, "To trace the path of a ray of light through a rectangular glass slab."

Which of the marked set-ups is likely to give best results (P1 and P2 are the positions of pins fixed on the incident ray)?

1. I
2. II
3. III
4. IV

Question 33

33. On the basis of the experiment, "To trace the path of a ray of light through a rectangular glass slab", students of a class arrived at which one of the following conclusions?

1. Angle of incidence is greater than the angle of emergence.
2. Angle of emergence is smaller than the angle of refraction.
3. Emergent ray is parallel to the refracted ray.
4. Incident ray and emergent ray are parallel to each other.

Question 34


The path of a ray of light passing through a glass prism is shown below:

In this diagram, the angle of prism, angle of incidence, angle of emergence and angle of deviation, respectively, have been represented by:

1. O, Y, Z and N
2. P, Y, M and Z
3. O, X, M and Z
4. P, X, Z and N

Question 35

35. A student is observing a diagram showing the path of a ray of light passing through a glass prism. He would find that for all angles of incidence the ray of light bends:

1. towards the normal while entering the prism and away from the normal while emerging from the prism
2. away from the normal while entering the prism and towards the normal while emerging from the prism
3. away from the normal while entering as well as while emerging from the prism
4. towards the normal while entering as well as while emerging from the prism

Question 36

36. A student was asked by his teacher to find the image distance for various object distance in case of a given convex lens. He performed the experiment with all precautions and noted down his observations in the following table:

S. No.Object distance (cm)Image distance (cm)
160 15

After checking the observations table the teacher pointed out that there is a mistake in recording the image distance in one of the observations. Find the serial number of the observations having faulty image distance.

1. 2
2. 3
3. 5
4. 6

Question 37

37. A student has obtained a magnified image of a flame on a screen using a convex lens. To draw the corresponding ray diagram to show the image formation, which of the following two rays whose paths after refraction are shown, should he select ?

1. I and II
2. II and III
3. III and IV
4. I and III

Question 38

38. Study the following diagrams showing various stages of binary fission in Amoeba:

The correct sequence of these diagrams should be:

1. I, IV, III, II, V
2. I, III, IV, II, V
3. I, II, IV, III, V
4. I, II, III, IV, V

Question 39

39. Identify the figures showing the process of budding in yeast.

1. I, II and III
2. II, III and IV
3. I, II and IV
4. III, IV and I

Question 40

40. Which one of the following pairs of vegetables is an example of homologous structures?

1. Potato and sweet potato
2. Carrot and radish
3. Carrot and tomato
4. Tomato and radish

Question 41

41. Four students P, Q, R and S differently reported the following set of organs to be analogous :

P. Forelimb of a frog and forelimb of a lizard

Q. Forelimb of a bird and forelimb of a human

R. Wings of a parrot and wings of a butterfly

S. Wings of a bird and wings of a bat

The two students who have reported correctly are :

1. P and Q
2. Q and R
3. R and S
4. P and S

Question 42

42. You are asked by your teacher to study the different parts of an embryo of a gram seed. Given below are the steps to be followed for the experiment:

I. Soak the gram seeds in plain water and keep them overnight.

II. Cut open a soaked seed and observe its different parts.

III. Take some dry gram seeds in a petri dish.

IV. Drain the excess water.

V. Cover the soaked seeds with a wet cotton cloth and leave them for a day.

The correct sequence of these steps is :

1. III, I, V, IV, II
2. III, I, II, IV, V
3. III, IV, V, I, II
4. III, I, IV, V, II


Question 4

4. List four advantages of vegetative propagation.

Question 5

5. Draw a ray diagram to show the path of the reflected ray corresponding to an incident ray which is directed parallel to the principal axis of a convex mirror. Mark on it the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection.

Question 6

6. Why is Government of India imposing a ban on the use of polythene bags? Suggest two alternatives to these bags and explain how this ban is likely to improve the environment.

Question 7

7. What is meant by biodiversity ? List two advantages of conserving forest and wild life.


Question 8

8. State the meaning of functional group in a carbon compound. Write the functional group present in (i) ethanol and (ii) ethanoic acid and also draw their structures.

Question 9

9. Write the name and general formula of a chain of hydrocarbons in which an addition reaction with hydrogen can take place. Stating the essential conditions required for an addition reaction to occur, write the chemical equation giving the name of the reactant and the product of such a reaction.

Question 10

10. Based on the group valency of elements state the formula lot the following giving justification for each :

(i) Oxides of 1st group elements,

(ii) Halides of the elements of group 13, and

(iii) Compounds formed when an element of group 2 combines with, an element of group 16.

Question 11

11. (a) Define the following terms :

(i) Valency (ii) Atomic size

(b) How do the valency and the atomic size of the elements vary while going from left to right along a period in the modern periodic table?

Question 12

12. Draw diagrams to explain the regeneration that takes place in each of the body parts of planaria when its body is out into pieces. Name any other organism in which a similar process can be observed.

Question 13

13. List any four methods of contraception used by humans. How does their use have a direct effect on the health and prosperity of a family?

Question 14

14. (a) Give the evidence that the birds have evolved from reptiles.

(b) Insects, octopus, planaria and vertebrates possess eyes. Can we group these animals together on the basis of eyes that they possess ? Justify your answer giving reason.

Question 15

15. A cross was made between pure breeding pea plants one with round and green seeds and the other with wrinkled and yellow seeds.

(a) Write the phenotype of F1 progeny. Give reason for your answer.

(b) Write the different types of F2 progeny obtained along with their ratio when F1 progeny was selfed.

Question 16

16. A spherical mirror produces an image of magnification −1 on a screen placed at a distance of 50 cm from the mirror.

(a) Write the type of mirror.

(b) Find the distance of the image from the object.

(c) What is the focal length of the mirror?

(d) Draw the ray diagram to show the image formation in this case.

Question 17

17. State the laws of refraction of light. If the speed of light in vacuum is 3 × 108 ms−1, find the speed of light in a medium of absolute refractive index 1.5.

Question 18

18. Explain giving reason why the sky appears blue to an observer from the surface of the earth? What will the colour of the sky be for an astronaut staying in the international space station orbiting the earth? Justify your answer giving reason.

Question 19

19. "Our food grains such as wheat and rice, the vegetables and fruits and even meat are found to contain varying amounts of pesticide residues." State the reason to explain how and why it happens?


Question 20

20. State the reason why carbon can neither form C4+ cations nor C4− anions but forms covalent compound. Also state the reason to explain why covalent compounds:

(i) are bad conductors of electricity.

(ii) have low melting and boiling points.

Question 21

21. (a) Give one example each of a unisexual and a bisexual flower.

(b) Mention the changes a flower undergoes after fertilisation.

(c) How does the amount of DNA remain constant, though each new generation is a combination of DNA copies of two individuals?

Question 22

22. (a) Name the respective part of human female reproductive system:

(i) that produces eggs,

(ii) where fusion of eggs and sperm takes place, and

(iii) where zygote gets implanted.

(b) Describe in brief what happens to the zygote after it gets implanted.

Question 23

23. A student wants to project the image of a candle flame on the walls of school laboratory by using a lens:

(a) Which type of lens should he use and why?

(b) At what distance in terms of focal length 'F' of the lens should he place the candle flame so as to get (i) a magnified, and (ii) a diminished image, respectively, on the wall?

(c) Draw ray diagram to show the formation of the image in each case.

Question 24

24. (a) List three common refractive defects of vision. Suggest the way of correcting these defects.

(b) About 45 lakh people in the developing countries are suffering from corneal blindness. About 30 lakh children below the age of 12 years suffering from this defect can be cured by replacing the defective cornea with the cornea of a donated eye. How and why can students of your age involve themselves to create awareness about this fact among people?

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