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Asked by Nipun Kumar

Oct 25, 2013

what are the harmful effects of microorganisms and the advantages of microorganisms?

who can easily give the answer



Surya rao Sripathi

Microorganisms are small organisms invisible to the naked eye because of their extremely small size.  They are grouped into various groups like Bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses.
Many of these organisms are useful to human and nature while some are harmful and even cause diseases.
Type Useful microorganisms (one example) Harmful microorganisms(One example)
Bacteria Lactobacillus (curd bacteria) Salmonella typhi (causes typhoid)
Fungi Penicillium notatum (to make antibiotics) Trichophyton rubrum (Athlete's foot)
Algae Anabaena (biological nitrogen fixation) Blue-green algae and red tides (produce toxins)
Protozoa Paramecium (kills harmful bacteria) Plasmodium (malaria fever)
Virus polio, chicken pox (to make vaccines) HIV (causes AIDS)
Useful effects of microorganisms
  1. Bacteria: In industries, they are needed to make curd, cheese, vinegar, lactic acid, alcohol and even in ripening of tea leaves, etc.
  2. Fungi: Some useful fungi are yeast, used to make dough in bakery and alcohol etc. Some fungi are useful for preparing antibiotics. Some mushrooms which are useful in making vitamins and organic acids.
  3. Algae: Some useful algae are chlorella (produce protein and vitamin), red algae (agar) and brown algae (Iodine and potassium).
  4. Protozoa: Some help in the final degradation of waste and sewage while some are symbiotic in nature.
  5. Virus: They are used for scientific research such as in biotechnology, genetic engineering, gene therapy and for making antibiotics etc.
Harmful effects of microorganisms:
  1. Bacteria: Causes various diseases such as typhoid, diarrhea, and cholera.
  2. Fungi: Causes a large number of diseases in plants and in animals such as rust diseases in plants, fruit rot in apple, red rot in sugar cane and ring worm disease in human beings.
  3. Algae: Algal boom in water (rapid growth of algae) causes poisonous effect after they die, which in turn results in the death of aquatic organisms.
  4. Protozoa: Causes Amoebic dysentery, pyorrhoea and sleeping sickness etc.
  5. Virus: Cause small fox, common cold, influenza, herpes, hepatitis, polio and rabies.
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