Notes On Participles - Kinds and Usage - CBSE Class 10 English Grammar
There are three forms of participles:                                                              Types of Participates       Active             Passive 1. Present participle writing being written 2. Perfect participle having written having been written 3. Past participle written written 1. Present participle The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the base form of the verb. Speak → reading Run → running carry → carrying The present participle does not in itself indicate the time of the action that it refers to. However, it does show that this time is the same as the time of the preceding verb or the verb in the main clause: Example: She watched the storm approaching. (approaching refers to the same time as watched: She watched as the storm was approaching.) 2. Perfect participle The perfect participle indicates that the time of the action that it refers to is before that of the verb in the main clause: Example: Having studied for a long time, he felt very tired the next day. (having studied refers to a time before felt tired: After he had studied for a long time, he felt very tired the next day.) 3.The past participle The past participleis also called the third form of the verb. With regular verbs, the past participle is formed by adding -ed to the base form. Note the changes in spelling: Say → said worry → worried arrive → arrived (we only add -d if the verb ends in -e) try → tried (a final -y changes to -i- after a consonant) stop → stopped (we double the final consonant if the verb ends with consonant-vowel-consonant) A number of verbs have irregular past participle forms. A few examples are: write → written speak → spoken The past participle can refer to the same time as the verb in the main clause or to a time before that: Example: The candidate for the interview has all the qualifications required for the job. (required refers to the same time as has: The candidate for the interview has all the qualifications that are required for the job.)

#### Summary

There are three forms of participles:                                                              Types of Participates       Active             Passive 1. Present participle writing being written 2. Perfect participle having written having been written 3. Past participle written written 1. Present participle The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the base form of the verb. Speak → reading Run → running carry → carrying The present participle does not in itself indicate the time of the action that it refers to. However, it does show that this time is the same as the time of the preceding verb or the verb in the main clause: Example: She watched the storm approaching. (approaching refers to the same time as watched: She watched as the storm was approaching.) 2. Perfect participle The perfect participle indicates that the time of the action that it refers to is before that of the verb in the main clause: Example: Having studied for a long time, he felt very tired the next day. (having studied refers to a time before felt tired: After he had studied for a long time, he felt very tired the next day.) 3.The past participle The past participleis also called the third form of the verb. With regular verbs, the past participle is formed by adding -ed to the base form. Note the changes in spelling: Say → said worry → worried arrive → arrived (we only add -d if the verb ends in -e) try → tried (a final -y changes to -i- after a consonant) stop → stopped (we double the final consonant if the verb ends with consonant-vowel-consonant) A number of verbs have irregular past participle forms. A few examples are: write → written speak → spoken The past participle can refer to the same time as the verb in the main clause or to a time before that: Example: The candidate for the interview has all the qualifications required for the job. (required refers to the same time as has: The candidate for the interview has all the qualifications that are required for the job.)
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