Notes On Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous Tense - CBSE Class 10 English Grammar
We use the present perfect to express that an action started in the past and has lasted until now, or was only just completed. The present perfect simple is generally used to emphasise the completion of an action and its results. With the present perfect continuous, we emphasise the length or the uninterrupted progress of an action. Usage: Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Result (what, how many/much, how often) Example: He has worked very hard. I have written a letter . Duration (how long, since when) Example: I have been working here since 2007 I have been writing letters all day. Negative: not since the last occurrence Example: I haven’t eaten anything all day. Negative: not since the beginning of the action Example: I have not been eating all day. Signal Words Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive how often … times how long since for

#### Summary

We use the present perfect to express that an action started in the past and has lasted until now, or was only just completed. The present perfect simple is generally used to emphasise the completion of an action and its results. With the present perfect continuous, we emphasise the length or the uninterrupted progress of an action. Usage: Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Result (what, how many/much, how often) Example: He has worked very hard. I have written a letter . Duration (how long, since when) Example: I have been working here since 2007 I have been writing letters all day. Negative: not since the last occurrence Example: I haven’t eaten anything all day. Negative: not since the beginning of the action Example: I have not been eating all day. Signal Words Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive how often … times how long since for