From the earliest times, human beings have felt the need to communicate with each other. The latest advances in communication are about enabling communication over long distances without the need for change in location of the sender or receiver.
Communication is of two types personal communication and mass communication. Personal communication is where just two or a small group of people communicate with each other. Personal letters, e-mails and phone calls are examples of inter-personal communication.
Mass communication is communication referred to an indefinite number of people spread over a large geographical area. Radio, television, cinema, newspapers and magazines, and Internet, are examples of mass communication.
India’s postal service is the largest of its kind in the world where the services are provided by the Department of Posts of the Government of India. The Indian postal service handles both letters and parcels. Post cards and envelopes are classified as first-class mail and are delivered on priority using both air and land transport.
Packets of books, and registered newspapers and periodicals are classified as second-class mail, and are delivered using surface transport like roadways, railways and ships.
The Indian postal service has introduced six channels for quicker delivery of letters in large town and cities, called the Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.
The telecom network in India is the largest in Asia, with about 37,565 telephone exchanges spread all over the country. All the urban centres and over two-thirds of Indian villages are now connected with subscriber trunk dialling, or STD facility.
The Government of India has made provisions for 24-hour STD facility in every village of India. A uniform rate of STD calls from anywhere in India is possible due to the integration of our space and communication technology development programs.
Radio, television, cinema, books, newspapers, magazines and the Internet serve the dual purpose of providing entertainment and information to the masses. The national Indian radio broadcaster is Akashwani or All India Radio.
Akashwani broadcasts a variety of programmes in regional languages all over India. The national Indian television broadcaster Doordarshan is one of the largest networks in the world. Doordarshan broadcasts a variety of entertainment, news and information, sports and educational programmes for all age groups.
Periodicals are publications like newspapers and magazines published at regular intervals, from daily to weekly to monthly to yearly. Daily newspapers in India are published in more than 100 languages and local dialects. Hindi has the largest share of newspaper publication, followed by English and Urdu.
The Indian film industry is the largest producers of feature films in the world and also produces short films and video films.
The Central Board of Film Certification, more commonly known as the censor board, certifies all Indian and foreign films before they can be released in India.