The Non-cooperation Movement was conceptualised as a non- violent, resistance of the British rule. However, it developed a violent streak.
The plantation workers in Assam worked under very strict rules and regulations. As per the Inland Immigration Act of 1859, the plantation workers were rarely allowed to leave the tea gardens without permission and were seldom allowed to go back homes.
Inspired by the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers disobeyed the British authorities and left the plantations to go back to their homes.
Their journey was disrupted due to railway and streamer strikes, were caught by the police and beaten up. The plantation workers had ascribed their own meaning to Swaraj different from that of the congress. They felt that Swaraj marked an era when their sufferings would end.
On 4th February, 1922 thousands of protesters gathered to picket a of the liquor shop at the local market in Chauri Chaura.
To threaten the protestors, the policemen fired in the air. However the agitated crowd began to pelt stones at the police. The sub inspector ordered fire on the crowd which 3 protestors were killed and several others got injured.
The agitated protestors retaliated in a violent manner and began attacking the police from all sides. The policemen got threatened by thousands of people and they locked themselves up in the police station.
To avenge the death of the protestors, the frantic crowd set the Police station on fire. In this incident 22 policemen were burnt alive, including the station sub inspector. Shocked by the growing violence, Mahatma Gandhi decided to take back the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922.