Colonialism is a process of building and maintaining of colonies in one territory by people from another territory and exploiting it economically.
Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos were referred to as Indo-China.
Trade had flourished in old Vietnam and it was linked with the maritime silk route. Silk Route refers to an interconnected network of trade routes that connects eastern southern and western Asia with the Mediterranean world, including North Africa and Europe.
The French arrived in Vietnam in 1858 and consolidated their hold over the northern region by mid-1880. Franco Indo-China was formed in 1887.
Writer and policy-maker, Paul Bernard believed that the prime motive behind acquiring colonies was to flourish business and make profits.
Vietnamese economy was predominantly based on rice and rubber plantations owned by the French and elites in Vietnam. Indentured labour or labour based on contract was used in these plantations from the mid-nineteenth century.
The French colonization and their growing dominance in the country created tremendous unrest in Vietnam and resulted in nationalist resistance.