The concepts of liberty, equality and fraternity were touchstones of the French revolution and dominated the social and political scene of Europe during the 19th century. The first print depicted by French artist Frédéric Sorrieu. He had visualised a utopian world made up of democratic and social republics.
A utopian vision refers to a perfect society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist. Absolutism can be defined as a government or a system of rule with a lot of uncontrolled power. It also refers to an oppressive monarchical government.
During the 19th century, Europe was undergoing a phase of transition. The long-oppressed peasantry had begun to question the landed aristocracy and the feudal system. Rapid industrialisation had given birth to the middle class consisting of industrialists, businessmen and professionals who wanted to bring together people with a shared past, history and culture gave rise to the idea of the nation state.
In the 19th century, the concept of nation states did not take into account the geographical boundary of a country. Plebiscite is an important right given by a nation to its citizens. A plebiscite is a direct vote by which the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.