Notes On Management of Water and Coal Resources - CBSE Class 10 Science
Water Water is an essential form of life. Water is useful in agriculture, industries, cooking and various domestic activities.Most of us depend on rainfall for water.  The rainfall pattern in India differs in different geographical regions. Tropical regions receive more rainfall as compared to desert regions. The passage of water from water bodies to the atmosphere and back to the earth is called water cycle. During water cycle, water from aquatic bodies evaporates into the atmosphere due to sunlight and condenses into clouds. Due to air currents, the clouds turn into rains and reach water bodies and the ground. Forms of water        •  Around 97.5 percent of water in the oceans is salty.  About 1.75 percent of fresh water remains frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps while the remaining 0.75 percent exists as groundwater.        •  The advantages of groundwater are that it does not evaporate, it recharges wells and it is protected from contamination by human and animal waste. Dams Dams are the structures constructed to divide and retain river water in a particular area.        •  Some famous dams in India are the Bhakra Nangal Dam, the Sardar Sarovar Dam and the Tehri Dam.        •  Dams provide water which is used to generate hydroelectric power.        •  Dams are also used to supply water for agriculture, for domestic purposes and as drinking water in cities. Water from dams is distributed through canal systems that transport stored water to great distances.        •  The Indira Gandhi Canal is one of the biggest canal projects in India which provides water for Rajasthan.        •  The disadvantages of dams are deforestation, sedimentation, erosion of river beds, and disruption of animal and plant life. Watershed management Watershed management is an integrated multi resource management of land and water.        •  Watershed management aims at water conservation to increase biomass production.        •  Water harvesting is an age old concept in India.        •  Water harvesting techniques are named differently at different places, but the use remains the same. For example, Khadins and Nadis in Rajasthan, Bandharas and Tals in Maharashtra, Bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, Ahars and Pynes in Bihar, and Eris in Tamil Nadu.        •  Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh, Kattas in Kerala, Trenches in Karnataka help in recharging water resources. Fossil fuels Coal, petroleum and natural gas are the fossil fuels which provide us energy in many activities of our life. These are non-renewable sources of energy.        •  Coal was formed hundreds of million years ago as a result of the action of heat and pressure on decaying, buried plants in the swampy areas of the earth. It is a continuous process taking place under the earth.        •  Coal helps in the production of thermal electricity. About 37 percent of the world’s electricity is produced using coal.        •  Coal is a non-renewable but cheaper resource than other fuels like petroleum and gas.        •  The disadvantages of fossil fuels are that they release carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur on combustion. Carbon dioxide causes global warming. Some alternative sources of energy are wind, solar, thermal and hydroelectric energy. These are all viable options since they are more environment-friendly. Energy conservation can be done by recycling and reusing plastic bags, switching off lights, and also by using CFL bulbs.

#### Summary

Water Water is an essential form of life. Water is useful in agriculture, industries, cooking and various domestic activities.Most of us depend on rainfall for water.  The rainfall pattern in India differs in different geographical regions. Tropical regions receive more rainfall as compared to desert regions. The passage of water from water bodies to the atmosphere and back to the earth is called water cycle. During water cycle, water from aquatic bodies evaporates into the atmosphere due to sunlight and condenses into clouds. Due to air currents, the clouds turn into rains and reach water bodies and the ground. Forms of water        •  Around 97.5 percent of water in the oceans is salty.  About 1.75 percent of fresh water remains frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps while the remaining 0.75 percent exists as groundwater.        •  The advantages of groundwater are that it does not evaporate, it recharges wells and it is protected from contamination by human and animal waste. Dams Dams are the structures constructed to divide and retain river water in a particular area.        •  Some famous dams in India are the Bhakra Nangal Dam, the Sardar Sarovar Dam and the Tehri Dam.        •  Dams provide water which is used to generate hydroelectric power.        •  Dams are also used to supply water for agriculture, for domestic purposes and as drinking water in cities. Water from dams is distributed through canal systems that transport stored water to great distances.        •  The Indira Gandhi Canal is one of the biggest canal projects in India which provides water for Rajasthan.        •  The disadvantages of dams are deforestation, sedimentation, erosion of river beds, and disruption of animal and plant life. Watershed management Watershed management is an integrated multi resource management of land and water.        •  Watershed management aims at water conservation to increase biomass production.        •  Water harvesting is an age old concept in India.        •  Water harvesting techniques are named differently at different places, but the use remains the same. For example, Khadins and Nadis in Rajasthan, Bandharas and Tals in Maharashtra, Bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, Ahars and Pynes in Bihar, and Eris in Tamil Nadu.        •  Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh, Kattas in Kerala, Trenches in Karnataka help in recharging water resources. Fossil fuels Coal, petroleum and natural gas are the fossil fuels which provide us energy in many activities of our life. These are non-renewable sources of energy.        •  Coal was formed hundreds of million years ago as a result of the action of heat and pressure on decaying, buried plants in the swampy areas of the earth. It is a continuous process taking place under the earth.        •  Coal helps in the production of thermal electricity. About 37 percent of the world’s electricity is produced using coal.        •  Coal is a non-renewable but cheaper resource than other fuels like petroleum and gas.        •  The disadvantages of fossil fuels are that they release carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur on combustion. Carbon dioxide causes global warming. Some alternative sources of energy are wind, solar, thermal and hydroelectric energy. These are all viable options since they are more environment-friendly. Energy conservation can be done by recycling and reusing plastic bags, switching off lights, and also by using CFL bulbs.

#### Activities

Activity 1 Omsi.edu has sparked an interactive audiovisual simulation to explain water levels in dams in different seasons to be predicted by the user. According to the data entered by the user, forecast is generated by the simulation. It is devised into separate modules showing explanations in the form of text. Results for the data provided are provided in the form of tabular columns and also bar charts. Go to Activity Activity 2 Shell.com has created an interactive video which projects the dwindling of energy resourcesin the later years. It also elucidates the ill-effects caused by burning of fossil fuels. It also suggests two alternative sources of energy for future. It explores and provides us with scenario of future world. Go to Activity Activity 3 Tn.nic.in has demonstrated the energy scenario under few important topics. It has a major concern of discussing about aspects like commercial and non-commercial energy resources, energy needs, different energy reforms. Information about usage of energy and its impact on the environment adds flavou to this module. Go to Activity