Notes On Modern Periodic Table - CBSE Class 10 Science
The systematic arrangement of elements into groups and periods is called periodic table. In 1913, Henry Moseley showed that the atomic number of an element is a more fundamental property than its atomic mass. So Mendeleev’s Periodic law was modified and atomic number was adopted as the basis of the Modern Periodic Table. The Modern Periodic Law is stated as: "Properties of elements are a periodic functions of their atomic number". Atomic number is the basis for modern periodic table. Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus, it is also equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Example: In Carbon The main features of modern periodic table:         •  Elements are arranged in the increasing order of atomic numbers.         •  Horizontal rows in the periodic table are called periods and vertical columns in the table are called groups.         •  Elements in the modern periodic table are arranged in 7 periods and 18 groups. Filled orbitals and number of elements in different periods: Period Nature of period Filled orbitals Number of electrons accomdated Strating -Last element Number of elements 1 Shortest period 1s 2 Hydrogen - Helium 2 2 Short period 2s 2p 2 + 6 Lithium - Neon 8 3 Short period 3s 3p  2 + 6 Sodium - Argon 8 4 Long period 4s 3d 4p 2 + 10 + 6 Potassium - Krypton 18 5 Long period 5s 4d 5p 2 + 10 + 6 Rubidium - Xenon 18 6  Longest period 6s 5d 4f     5d 7p 2 + 1 + 14 + 9 + 6 Cesium - Radon 32 7 Longest period 7s 6d 5f 6d 7p 2 + 1 + 14 + 9 + 6 Francium - Uuo 32 Elements were classified into groups based on the number of valence electrons. According to IUPAC nomenclature the 18 groups in modern periodic table are numbered as 1 to 18. Types of elements: The elements in the modern periodic table were classified into four types. They are Representative elements Transition elements Inner transition elements Noble gases Representative elements: The elements of group -1, group-2 and group-13 to group-17 are the representative elements. Group-1: Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns1.  These elements have one electron in their valence shell. This group elements are also known as alkali metals as the hydroxides of these group elements are basic in nature and soluble in water. Group-2: Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2. These elements have two electrons in their valence shell. The hydroxides of these group elements are basic in nature and soluble in water. These elements obtained from earth crust because of these reasons these elements are called as alkaline earth metals. Group-13: Boron, Aluminium, Gallium, Indium and Thallium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np1. These elements have three electrons in their valence shell. These group elements mostly form covalent compounds. Group-14: Carbon, Silicon, Germanium and Tin are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np2.  These elements have four electrons in their valence shell. Group-15: Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np3.   These elements have five electrons in their valence shell. These group elements are also called as pnictogens. Group-16: Oxygen, Sulphur, Selenium, Tellurium and Polonium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np4.  These elements have six electrons in their valence shell. This group elements are also known as chalcogens. Group-17: Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np5.  These elements have seven electrons in their valence shell.  This group elements are also called as halogens. Group-18: Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Radon and Xenon are elements of this. This group also referred as zero group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np6. These elements have eight electrons (octet configuration) in their valence shell. This group elements are also known as inert gas elements. Transition elements: Elements which contains incomplete penultimate ((n-1):d -sub shell) shell with electrons are called transition elements. Elements present between the group -2 and group-13 in the modern periodic table are the transition elements. In transition elements the valency electrons goes to d - sub shell.  General electronic configuration of transition elements is ns2 (n-1)d 1-10.  Transition elements are classified into four series of elements. They are 3d- series (1st transition series), 4d –series (2nd transition series), 5d - Series (3rd transition series) & 6d – series (4th transition series). Lanthanides and actinides: Elements which kept kept separately under the table in two seperate rows in the Modern periodic table are called lanthanides and actindes.  Theses elements contains incomplete anti-penultimate shells ((n-2): f -sub shells). So these elements are also called as inner transition elements. General electronic configuration lanathanides and actindies is (n-2) f1-14 (n-1)d0-1 ns2. Position of Hydrogen in the periodic table: There is an anomaly when it comes to the position of Hydrogen in the periodic table as it can be placed either in group I or 17 group of the first period. Reasons for abnormality regarding the position of hydrogen: Hydrogen can show properties similar to alkali metals and it has one electron in it valence shell just similar to alkalimetals. Just similar to alkali metals it loses one electron to form cation. Similar to alkali metals it combines with Oxygen, Sulphur and Halogens to form similar compounds.   Hydrogen shows similar properties to halogens.  It exists as a diatomic molecule (H2). Just similar to halogens which exists as X2 (X =F, Cl, Br, I). Hydrogen combines with metals and non metals to form covalent compounds.  Example: Hydrogen combines with metals to form metal hydrides just similar to halogens which forms halides with metals. H2 + 2Na → 2NaH Cl2 + 2Na →2NaCl Because of the above reasons their is uncertainity regarding the position of hydrogen.

#### Summary

The systematic arrangement of elements into groups and periods is called periodic table. In 1913, Henry Moseley showed that the atomic number of an element is a more fundamental property than its atomic mass. So Mendeleev’s Periodic law was modified and atomic number was adopted as the basis of the Modern Periodic Table. The Modern Periodic Law is stated as: "Properties of elements are a periodic functions of their atomic number". Atomic number is the basis for modern periodic table. Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus, it is also equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Example: In Carbon The main features of modern periodic table:         •  Elements are arranged in the increasing order of atomic numbers.         •  Horizontal rows in the periodic table are called periods and vertical columns in the table are called groups.         •  Elements in the modern periodic table are arranged in 7 periods and 18 groups. Filled orbitals and number of elements in different periods: Period Nature of period Filled orbitals Number of electrons accomdated Strating -Last element Number of elements 1 Shortest period 1s 2 Hydrogen - Helium 2 2 Short period 2s 2p 2 + 6 Lithium - Neon 8 3 Short period 3s 3p  2 + 6 Sodium - Argon 8 4 Long period 4s 3d 4p 2 + 10 + 6 Potassium - Krypton 18 5 Long period 5s 4d 5p 2 + 10 + 6 Rubidium - Xenon 18 6  Longest period 6s 5d 4f     5d 7p 2 + 1 + 14 + 9 + 6 Cesium - Radon 32 7 Longest period 7s 6d 5f 6d 7p 2 + 1 + 14 + 9 + 6 Francium - Uuo 32 Elements were classified into groups based on the number of valence electrons. According to IUPAC nomenclature the 18 groups in modern periodic table are numbered as 1 to 18. Types of elements: The elements in the modern periodic table were classified into four types. They are Representative elements Transition elements Inner transition elements Noble gases Representative elements: The elements of group -1, group-2 and group-13 to group-17 are the representative elements. Group-1: Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns1.  These elements have one electron in their valence shell. This group elements are also known as alkali metals as the hydroxides of these group elements are basic in nature and soluble in water. Group-2: Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2. These elements have two electrons in their valence shell. The hydroxides of these group elements are basic in nature and soluble in water. These elements obtained from earth crust because of these reasons these elements are called as alkaline earth metals. Group-13: Boron, Aluminium, Gallium, Indium and Thallium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np1. These elements have three electrons in their valence shell. These group elements mostly form covalent compounds. Group-14: Carbon, Silicon, Germanium and Tin are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np2.  These elements have four electrons in their valence shell. Group-15: Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np3.   These elements have five electrons in their valence shell. These group elements are also called as pnictogens. Group-16: Oxygen, Sulphur, Selenium, Tellurium and Polonium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np4.  These elements have six electrons in their valence shell. This group elements are also known as chalcogens. Group-17: Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np5.  These elements have seven electrons in their valence shell.  This group elements are also called as halogens. Group-18: Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Radon and Xenon are elements of this. This group also referred as zero group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np6. These elements have eight electrons (octet configuration) in their valence shell. This group elements are also known as inert gas elements. Transition elements: Elements which contains incomplete penultimate ((n-1):d -sub shell) shell with electrons are called transition elements. Elements present between the group -2 and group-13 in the modern periodic table are the transition elements. In transition elements the valency electrons goes to d - sub shell.  General electronic configuration of transition elements is ns2 (n-1)d 1-10.  Transition elements are classified into four series of elements. They are 3d- series (1st transition series), 4d –series (2nd transition series), 5d - Series (3rd transition series) & 6d – series (4th transition series). Lanthanides and actinides: Elements which kept kept separately under the table in two seperate rows in the Modern periodic table are called lanthanides and actindes.  Theses elements contains incomplete anti-penultimate shells ((n-2): f -sub shells). So these elements are also called as inner transition elements. General electronic configuration lanathanides and actindies is (n-2) f1-14 (n-1)d0-1 ns2. Position of Hydrogen in the periodic table: There is an anomaly when it comes to the position of Hydrogen in the periodic table as it can be placed either in group I or 17 group of the first period. Reasons for abnormality regarding the position of hydrogen: Hydrogen can show properties similar to alkali metals and it has one electron in it valence shell just similar to alkalimetals. Just similar to alkali metals it loses one electron to form cation. Similar to alkali metals it combines with Oxygen, Sulphur and Halogens to form similar compounds.   Hydrogen shows similar properties to halogens.  It exists as a diatomic molecule (H2). Just similar to halogens which exists as X2 (X =F, Cl, Br, I). Hydrogen combines with metals and non metals to form covalent compounds.  Example: Hydrogen combines with metals to form metal hydrides just similar to halogens which forms halides with metals. H2 + 2Na → 2NaH Cl2 + 2Na →2NaCl Because of the above reasons their is uncertainity regarding the position of hydrogen.

#### Activities

Activity1: Mint.ua.edu has developed an interesting game mode simulation which asks to categorise the elements into its respective groups. Upgrading levels will give difficult elements in faster manner of picking of elements. Go to Activity Activity2: Columbia.k12.mo.us has developed a simulation to encourage students in learning elements and properties of the elements in modern periodic table. Further this activity goes on to game mode where it will give hints based on those hints it asks you to find the element.It will also helps you in learning nature of bonding between different elements. Go to Activity Activity3: Oneonta.edu has developed an interactive simulation regarding modern periodic table. It will be helppful for the student in understanding about modern periodic table and it also includes interesting questions. Go to Activity Activity4: Sheppardsoftware.com has developed an interactive simulation about modern periodic table. The simulation will helps an easy way understand about each group of elements in the modern periodic table. When selecting each of group will reflects (highlight) in the periodic table with different colours for easy identification. Go to Activity

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