Notes On Locomotion and Movement (C - Level) - CBSE Class 11 Biology
All other living organisms exhibit movement, which is one of their characteristic features. However, movement in plants is different from that in animals. Movement is one of the most important characteristics of all living beings. Movement resulting in a change of location is called locomotion.

There are three main types of movement – amoeboid, ciliary and muscular. Amoeboid movement: The simplest form of movement is protoplasmic streaming as seen in unicellular organisms like the Amoeba.

Ciliary movement occurs in the internal tubular organs lined by ciliated epithelium. In the Paramoecium, cilia are used for locomotion as well as to draw food inside the cytopharynx. Another example of ciliary movement is seen in the trachea, where the cilia move in a coordinated manner to remove dust particles and foreign substances inhaled while breathing. Similarly in the Hydra, tentacles are used for locomotion and to capture prey.

The third type of movement is muscular movement, which is seen in the eyelids, tongue, jaws, hands and legs. Muscular movement is brought about by contractile muscles, which help in body movements and locomotion.

Locomotion is brought about by the coordination of the muscular, skeletal and neural systems in the body. Thus, living organisms move from one place to another as well as exhibit different types of movement such as amoeboid, ciliary and muscular movement of the eyelids, tongue, jaws, hands and legs.

Summary

All other living organisms exhibit movement, which is one of their characteristic features. However, movement in plants is different from that in animals. Movement is one of the most important characteristics of all living beings. Movement resulting in a change of location is called locomotion.

There are three main types of movement – amoeboid, ciliary and muscular. Amoeboid movement: The simplest form of movement is protoplasmic streaming as seen in unicellular organisms like the Amoeba.

Ciliary movement occurs in the internal tubular organs lined by ciliated epithelium. In the Paramoecium, cilia are used for locomotion as well as to draw food inside the cytopharynx. Another example of ciliary movement is seen in the trachea, where the cilia move in a coordinated manner to remove dust particles and foreign substances inhaled while breathing. Similarly in the Hydra, tentacles are used for locomotion and to capture prey.

The third type of movement is muscular movement, which is seen in the eyelids, tongue, jaws, hands and legs. Muscular movement is brought about by contractile muscles, which help in body movements and locomotion.

Locomotion is brought about by the coordination of the muscular, skeletal and neural systems in the body. Thus, living organisms move from one place to another as well as exhibit different types of movement such as amoeboid, ciliary and muscular movement of the eyelids, tongue, jaws, hands and legs.

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