Notes On Description of Important Flowering Families - CBSE Class 11 Biology
The description of a flowering plant includes its vegetative characters, floral characters, floral formula and floral diagram and provides vital information about the plant. The Fabaceae family, earlier known as Papilionoideae, is a sub-family of the Leguminosae family.  Their leaves are alternate and may be simple or pinnately compound, pulvinate and stipulate leaf base and show reticulate venation. The flowers are arranged in racemose inflorescence and are bisexual and zygomorphic. The calyx has five sepals, gamosepalous with imbricate or valvate aestivation. The corolla has five petals, polypetalous; and consists of a posterior standard, two lateral wings and two anterior ones forming a keel, and show descending imbricate or vexillary aestivation. The androecium consists of ten stamens that are diadelphous with a dithecous anther. The gynoecium has a superior, monocarpellary, unilocular ovary with many ovules and these flowers have a single style. Fruits are legumes with one to many non-endospermic seeds.
 
The solanaceae family is commonly known as the potato family. Their stems are aerial, herbaceous and rarely woody or underground as in potato. The leaves are alternate and simple and are very rarely pinnately compound, exstipulate and show reticulate venation. The flowers are arranged in cymose inflorescence, solitary or axillary and are bisexual and actinomorphic. The calyx has five sepals, gamosepalous with valvate aestivation.  The corolla has five petals, gamopetalous with valvate aestivation. The androecium has five stamens, epipetalous; and the gynoecium is bicarpellary, syncarpous, superior and bilocular ovary and the placenta is swollen with many ovules. The fruits are berries or capsules with many endospermic seeds
 
Liliaceae family is a characteristic representative of monocot plants. The leaves of these plants are generally basal, alternate and linear, exstipulate with parallel venation. The flowers are arranged in either solitary or cymose inflorescence, with umbellate clusters and are bisexual and actinomorphic. The calyx and the corolla are fused to form the perianth, which has six tepals, usually united into a tube, with valvate aestivation. The androecium consists of six stamens and the gynoecium is tricarpellary, syncarpous, superior and trilocular ovary with many ovules arranged in axile placentation. Fruits are generally capsules and are rarely berries, while the seeds are endospermous. 

Summary

The description of a flowering plant includes its vegetative characters, floral characters, floral formula and floral diagram and provides vital information about the plant. The Fabaceae family, earlier known as Papilionoideae, is a sub-family of the Leguminosae family.  Their leaves are alternate and may be simple or pinnately compound, pulvinate and stipulate leaf base and show reticulate venation. The flowers are arranged in racemose inflorescence and are bisexual and zygomorphic. The calyx has five sepals, gamosepalous with imbricate or valvate aestivation. The corolla has five petals, polypetalous; and consists of a posterior standard, two lateral wings and two anterior ones forming a keel, and show descending imbricate or vexillary aestivation. The androecium consists of ten stamens that are diadelphous with a dithecous anther. The gynoecium has a superior, monocarpellary, unilocular ovary with many ovules and these flowers have a single style. Fruits are legumes with one to many non-endospermic seeds.
 
The solanaceae family is commonly known as the potato family. Their stems are aerial, herbaceous and rarely woody or underground as in potato. The leaves are alternate and simple and are very rarely pinnately compound, exstipulate and show reticulate venation. The flowers are arranged in cymose inflorescence, solitary or axillary and are bisexual and actinomorphic. The calyx has five sepals, gamosepalous with valvate aestivation.  The corolla has five petals, gamopetalous with valvate aestivation. The androecium has five stamens, epipetalous; and the gynoecium is bicarpellary, syncarpous, superior and bilocular ovary and the placenta is swollen with many ovules. The fruits are berries or capsules with many endospermic seeds
 
Liliaceae family is a characteristic representative of monocot plants. The leaves of these plants are generally basal, alternate and linear, exstipulate with parallel venation. The flowers are arranged in either solitary or cymose inflorescence, with umbellate clusters and are bisexual and actinomorphic. The calyx and the corolla are fused to form the perianth, which has six tepals, usually united into a tube, with valvate aestivation. The androecium consists of six stamens and the gynoecium is tricarpellary, syncarpous, superior and trilocular ovary with many ovules arranged in axile placentation. Fruits are generally capsules and are rarely berries, while the seeds are endospermous. 

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