Notes On Industrial Waste and its Management - CBSE Class 11 Chemistry
The industrial waste pollutes the air, water and soil. Solid industrial waste can be categorized as biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Biodegradable waste consists of plant and animal waste that is broken down by other living organisms, is produced in industries like cotton mills, food processing units, paper mills and textile factories. Non-biodegradable waste consists of material that cannot be broken down and remains as such in the environment, is more harmful than biodegradable waste. It is produced by thermal power plants, integrated iron and steel plants, and fertilizer industries. Industries dealing with metals, chemicals, dyes, drugs, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, rubber goods, etc. also produce harmful wastes such as inflammables, explosives or highly reactive substances. A simple three-way method is denoted by three R's: which stand for Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. The first R, reduce, implies a reduction in the amount of waste we produce every day. Such measures reduce pollution by controlling waste, and are known as waste management. Waste is produced at many spots, from where it has to be collected for proper usage or disposal. In a proper waste management system, domestic waste is collected in small bins and then transferred to community bins. Waste is collected and carried to the disposal site, where the garbage is sorted out and separated into biodegradable and non-biodegradable material. The non-biodegradable material like plastic, glass and metal scrap is sent for recycling, while the biodegradable waste is deposited in landfills to convert it into compost. While collecting waste, special care should be taken by the workers to protect themselves from its harmful effects. When human beings are in direct contact with toxic wastes they become more prone to diseases caused by harmful chemicals. Though recycling is one of the easiest ways to reduce waste, only about 30% of waste is currently being recycled on the earth.

Summary

The industrial waste pollutes the air, water and soil. Solid industrial waste can be categorized as biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Biodegradable waste consists of plant and animal waste that is broken down by other living organisms, is produced in industries like cotton mills, food processing units, paper mills and textile factories. Non-biodegradable waste consists of material that cannot be broken down and remains as such in the environment, is more harmful than biodegradable waste. It is produced by thermal power plants, integrated iron and steel plants, and fertilizer industries. Industries dealing with metals, chemicals, dyes, drugs, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, rubber goods, etc. also produce harmful wastes such as inflammables, explosives or highly reactive substances. A simple three-way method is denoted by three R's: which stand for Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. The first R, reduce, implies a reduction in the amount of waste we produce every day. Such measures reduce pollution by controlling waste, and are known as waste management. Waste is produced at many spots, from where it has to be collected for proper usage or disposal. In a proper waste management system, domestic waste is collected in small bins and then transferred to community bins. Waste is collected and carried to the disposal site, where the garbage is sorted out and separated into biodegradable and non-biodegradable material. The non-biodegradable material like plastic, glass and metal scrap is sent for recycling, while the biodegradable waste is deposited in landfills to convert it into compost. While collecting waste, special care should be taken by the workers to protect themselves from its harmful effects. When human beings are in direct contact with toxic wastes they become more prone to diseases caused by harmful chemicals. Though recycling is one of the easiest ways to reduce waste, only about 30% of waste is currently being recycled on the earth.

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