Notes On Carboxylic Acids: Preparation - CBSE Class 12 Chemistry

Carboxylic acids can be prepared by different methods:

(i) Oxidation of primary alcohols and carbonyl compounds:

Oxidation of primary alcohols or aldehydes gives Carboxylic acids with same number of carbon atoms.

Aldehydes can also be oxidised to the corresponding carboxylic acids even with mild oxidising agents such as Tollen's reagent (or) Fehling's reagent.

Ketones also give carboxylic acids on oxidation. However, ketones are oxidised only under vigorous conditions, such as strong oxidising agents and elevated temperatures. Under these conditions ketones form a mixture of carboxylic acids with a fewer number of carbon atoms.

(ii) Oxidation of alkyl benzenes:

The oxidation of alkyl benzene is one of the most useful methods for preparing an aromatic carboxylic acid.

(iii) Carbonation of Grignard reagents:

The carbonation of Grignard reagents and followed by hydrolysis forms carboxylic acids.

(iv) Hydrolysis of nitriles:

Nitriles on hydrolysis can be converted into the corresponding carboxylic acids.

(v) Hydrolysis of acyl chlorides and anhydrides:

The hydrolysis of acid derivatives such as amides, acid chlorides, anhydrides and esters yields carboxylic acids.

(vi) Hydrolysis of esters:

Esters on hydrolysis form carboxylic acids along with alcohols.

Summary

Carboxylic acids can be prepared by different methods:

(i) Oxidation of primary alcohols and carbonyl compounds:

Oxidation of primary alcohols or aldehydes gives Carboxylic acids with same number of carbon atoms.

Aldehydes can also be oxidised to the corresponding carboxylic acids even with mild oxidising agents such as Tollen's reagent (or) Fehling's reagent.

Ketones also give carboxylic acids on oxidation. However, ketones are oxidised only under vigorous conditions, such as strong oxidising agents and elevated temperatures. Under these conditions ketones form a mixture of carboxylic acids with a fewer number of carbon atoms.

(ii) Oxidation of alkyl benzenes:

The oxidation of alkyl benzene is one of the most useful methods for preparing an aromatic carboxylic acid.

(iii) Carbonation of Grignard reagents:

The carbonation of Grignard reagents and followed by hydrolysis forms carboxylic acids.

(iv) Hydrolysis of nitriles:

Nitriles on hydrolysis can be converted into the corresponding carboxylic acids.

(v) Hydrolysis of acyl chlorides and anhydrides:

The hydrolysis of acid derivatives such as amides, acid chlorides, anhydrides and esters yields carboxylic acids.

(vi) Hydrolysis of esters:

Esters on hydrolysis form carboxylic acids along with alcohols.

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