Notes On Preparation - CBSE Class 12 Chemistry

Reduction of Nitroalkanes:

The reduction of nitro compounds can be carried out either by catalytic reduction using hydrogen gas in the presence of finely divided nickel palladium (or) platinum (or) by using active metals such as iron, tin and zinc in the presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid.

Ammonolysis:

Amines can also be prepared by the ammonolysis of alkyl (or) benzyl halides.

The process of cleavage of a carbon halogen bond by ammonia is called ammonloysis.

Reduction of Nitriles:

The reduction of nitriles with lithium aluminium hydride (or) with hydrogen in the presence of catalysts such as platinum, nickel or palladium yields primary amines.

The reaction for the reduction of nitriles has synthetic importance as it is used to step up the carbon chain.

The reduction of isonitriles (or) carbyl amines yields secondary amines.

Reduction of Amines:

Amides, on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride, yield amines.

Hoffman bromamide degradation:

The Hoffman bromamide degradation reaction is used to step down the carbon chain.

Summary

Reduction of Nitroalkanes:

The reduction of nitro compounds can be carried out either by catalytic reduction using hydrogen gas in the presence of finely divided nickel palladium (or) platinum (or) by using active metals such as iron, tin and zinc in the presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid.

Ammonolysis:

Amines can also be prepared by the ammonolysis of alkyl (or) benzyl halides.

The process of cleavage of a carbon halogen bond by ammonia is called ammonloysis.

Reduction of Nitriles:

The reduction of nitriles with lithium aluminium hydride (or) with hydrogen in the presence of catalysts such as platinum, nickel or palladium yields primary amines.

The reaction for the reduction of nitriles has synthetic importance as it is used to step up the carbon chain.

The reduction of isonitriles (or) carbyl amines yields secondary amines.

Reduction of Amines:

Amides, on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride, yield amines.

Hoffman bromamide degradation:

The Hoffman bromamide degradation reaction is used to step down the carbon chain.

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