Notes On Batteries And Fuel Cells - CBSE Class 12 Chemistry
Batteries convert chemical energy through a redox reaction into electrical energy. Batteries may consist of a single galvanic cell (or) several cells in series. There are two main types of batteries: primary and secondary. In a primary battery: The chemical reaction occurs only once.After being used for some time, battery becomes "dead". This cannot be used (or) charged again. Ex: Dry cell (or) the Leclanche cell, mercury cell...etc Secondary batteries can be recharged. Ex: Lead storage batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries are important secondary batteries Fuel cells: Fuel cells use a continuous supply of reactants to convert the energy of combustion of fuels into electrical energy. Ex: Hydrogen fuel cell Fuel cells will run continuously as long as the reactants are supplied. The products are then removed from the fuel cell. Fuel cells are not considered to be batteries, because they are not self-contained. One of the most important advantages of the hydrogen fuel cell is the absence of pollution, since only liquid water is formed. They are also significantly more efficient than direct combustion of fuels.

#### Summary

Batteries convert chemical energy through a redox reaction into electrical energy. Batteries may consist of a single galvanic cell (or) several cells in series. There are two main types of batteries: primary and secondary. In a primary battery: The chemical reaction occurs only once.After being used for some time, battery becomes "dead". This cannot be used (or) charged again. Ex: Dry cell (or) the Leclanche cell, mercury cell...etc Secondary batteries can be recharged. Ex: Lead storage batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries are important secondary batteries Fuel cells: Fuel cells use a continuous supply of reactants to convert the energy of combustion of fuels into electrical energy. Ex: Hydrogen fuel cell Fuel cells will run continuously as long as the reactants are supplied. The products are then removed from the fuel cell. Fuel cells are not considered to be batteries, because they are not self-contained. One of the most important advantages of the hydrogen fuel cell is the absence of pollution, since only liquid water is formed. They are also significantly more efficient than direct combustion of fuels.

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