Nature Of C-X Bond And Methods Of Preparation
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Nature of Bond:
•         Halogens are more electronegative than carbon. Thus halogen atoms have a greater tendency than carbon atoms to attract electron density. Therefore, bonds between carbon and halogen atoms are polar in nature. In the carbon–halogen bond, the carbon atom has a partial positive charge, while the halogen atom has a partial negative charge.
 
•         As the halogen atom becomes less electronegative, from fluorine to iodine, the carbon-halogen bond becomes less polar.
 
Preparation methods:
 
•         Reactions between alcohols and concentrated halogen acids produce alkyl halides.



•         Tertiary alcohols react with concentrated hydrogen chloride within fraction of time at room temperature to form tertiary alkyl halide.
 

 
•         Phosphorus tri-halides on reaction with alcohols produces alkyl halides.



•         Thionyl chloride on reaction with alcohols produces alkyl halides.


•         Alkyl halides can be prepared by reacting alkanes with halogens.



•         Markovnikov’s rule can be used to predict the major product of reactions between unsymmetrical alkenes and hydrogen halides.



Ex:



•         Vicinal dihalides can be synthesised from the reaction of alkenes with halogens.



•         Alkyl iodides can be produced by halogen exchange.



•         Aryl halides can be produced by electrophilic substitution of arenes or by the Sandmeyer reaction.

Summary

Nature of Bond:
•         Halogens are more electronegative than carbon. Thus halogen atoms have a greater tendency than carbon atoms to attract electron density. Therefore, bonds between carbon and halogen atoms are polar in nature. In the carbon–halogen bond, the carbon atom has a partial positive charge, while the halogen atom has a partial negative charge.
 
•         As the halogen atom becomes less electronegative, from fluorine to iodine, the carbon-halogen bond becomes less polar.
 
Preparation methods:
 
•         Reactions between alcohols and concentrated halogen acids produce alkyl halides.



•         Tertiary alcohols react with concentrated hydrogen chloride within fraction of time at room temperature to form tertiary alkyl halide.
 

 
•         Phosphorus tri-halides on reaction with alcohols produces alkyl halides.



•         Thionyl chloride on reaction with alcohols produces alkyl halides.


•         Alkyl halides can be prepared by reacting alkanes with halogens.



•         Markovnikov’s rule can be used to predict the major product of reactions between unsymmetrical alkenes and hydrogen halides.



Ex:



•         Vicinal dihalides can be synthesised from the reaction of alkenes with halogens.



•         Alkyl iodides can be produced by halogen exchange.



•         Aryl halides can be produced by electrophilic substitution of arenes or by the Sandmeyer reaction.

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