Notes On Types Of Solutions - CBSE Class 12 Chemistry
The utility (or) importance of solutions in life depends on their composition. Body fluids are examples of complex liquid solutions, containing many different solutes like electrolytes, sugar, urea, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The importance of the concentration of solutions can be seen from the fact that any change in their concentration shows significant impact on the living system. Ex: 1ppm of fluoride ions in water prevent tooth decay, while a concentration of 1.5 ppm causes spotted tooth and any concentration above 4 ppm becomes toxic. A solution is defined as a homogeneous mixture of two (or) more chemically non-reacting substances whose composition can be varied within certain limits. A homogeneous mixture is one in which the composition and properties are uniform throughout. In a solution, the component that is present in a smaller quantity is known as the solute (or) the dissolved substance. The component that is present in a larger quantity is known as the solvent (or) the dissolving substance. The solution has the same physical state as the solvent. A solution containing only one dissolved solute in a solvent is called a binary solution. Depending upon the physical state of the solvent, various types of solutions that can be formed are:       Types of Solutions              → Gaseous Solution                   • Gas in Gas                   • Liquid in Gas                   • Solid in Gas              → Liquid Solution                   • Gas in Liquid                   • Liquid in Liquid                   • Solid in Liquid              → Solid Solution                   • Gas in Solid                   • Liquid in Solid                   • Solid in Solid A solution in which a gas is the solvent, and a gas, a liquid or a solid is the solute, is known as a gaseous solution. Ex: (a) Air is a gas in gas type of solution. (b) Chloroform mixed with Nitrogen gas is liquid in gas type of solution. (c) Camphor in Nitrogen gas is an example of solid in gas type of solution. A solution in which a liquid is the solvent and a gas, a liquid or a solid is the solute is called a liquid solution. Ex: (a) Oxygen dissolved in water is an example of gas in liquid type of solution. (b) Ethanol dissolved in water is an example of liquid in liquid type of solution, (c) Glucose dissolved in water is an example of solid in liquid type of solution. A solution in which a solid is the solvent and a gas, a liquid (or) a solid is the solute is called a solid solution. Ex: (a) A solution of hydrogen in palladium is an example of gas in solid type of solution. (b) An amalgam of mercury with sodium is an example of liquid in solid type of solution. (c) Copper dissolved in gold is an example of solid in solid type of solution.

#### Summary

The utility (or) importance of solutions in life depends on their composition. Body fluids are examples of complex liquid solutions, containing many different solutes like electrolytes, sugar, urea, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The importance of the concentration of solutions can be seen from the fact that any change in their concentration shows significant impact on the living system. Ex: 1ppm of fluoride ions in water prevent tooth decay, while a concentration of 1.5 ppm causes spotted tooth and any concentration above 4 ppm becomes toxic. A solution is defined as a homogeneous mixture of two (or) more chemically non-reacting substances whose composition can be varied within certain limits. A homogeneous mixture is one in which the composition and properties are uniform throughout. In a solution, the component that is present in a smaller quantity is known as the solute (or) the dissolved substance. The component that is present in a larger quantity is known as the solvent (or) the dissolving substance. The solution has the same physical state as the solvent. A solution containing only one dissolved solute in a solvent is called a binary solution. Depending upon the physical state of the solvent, various types of solutions that can be formed are:       Types of Solutions              → Gaseous Solution                   • Gas in Gas                   • Liquid in Gas                   • Solid in Gas              → Liquid Solution                   • Gas in Liquid                   • Liquid in Liquid                   • Solid in Liquid              → Solid Solution                   • Gas in Solid                   • Liquid in Solid                   • Solid in Solid A solution in which a gas is the solvent, and a gas, a liquid or a solid is the solute, is known as a gaseous solution. Ex: (a) Air is a gas in gas type of solution. (b) Chloroform mixed with Nitrogen gas is liquid in gas type of solution. (c) Camphor in Nitrogen gas is an example of solid in gas type of solution. A solution in which a liquid is the solvent and a gas, a liquid or a solid is the solute is called a liquid solution. Ex: (a) Oxygen dissolved in water is an example of gas in liquid type of solution. (b) Ethanol dissolved in water is an example of liquid in liquid type of solution, (c) Glucose dissolved in water is an example of solid in liquid type of solution. A solution in which a solid is the solvent and a gas, a liquid (or) a solid is the solute is called a solid solution. Ex: (a) A solution of hydrogen in palladium is an example of gas in solid type of solution. (b) An amalgam of mercury with sodium is an example of liquid in solid type of solution. (c) Copper dissolved in gold is an example of solid in solid type of solution.

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