Urban Livelihoods
People in urban areas earn their living in various ways. They are either self-employed or work for someone.  

Several people also travel from rural to urban areas in search of work. Most of these workers are self-employed and work on streets selling goods, repairing items or providing services.  They build temporary shops, use carts or simply spread plastic sheets. Initially the hawkers weren’t allowed to do business in certain areas.

However, the government has now allotted areas in the city where they could set up their shops. A large number of people work in factories and industries in and around the city. They may either be permanent or temporary, called ‘casual basis’.

These temporary workers are forced to search for other jobs when they go out of job. There is no job security for them. In cities, there are groups of people sitting or standing in chowks waiting to be employed by someone. Such places are called “labour chowk”. 

Some people also run shops, showrooms and supermarkets which are licensed by the municipal corporation. These people hire supervisors and helpers to run their business smoothly. 

Several workers are permanently employed in private companies, factories, offices and government departments. They get a regular monthly salary.

These employees are also entitled to other benefits such as savings for old age, holidays as well as annual leave and medical facilities.   

Summary

People in urban areas earn their living in various ways. They are either self-employed or work for someone.  

Several people also travel from rural to urban areas in search of work. Most of these workers are self-employed and work on streets selling goods, repairing items or providing services.  They build temporary shops, use carts or simply spread plastic sheets. Initially the hawkers weren’t allowed to do business in certain areas.

However, the government has now allotted areas in the city where they could set up their shops. A large number of people work in factories and industries in and around the city. They may either be permanent or temporary, called ‘casual basis’.

These temporary workers are forced to search for other jobs when they go out of job. There is no job security for them. In cities, there are groups of people sitting or standing in chowks waiting to be employed by someone. Such places are called “labour chowk”. 

Some people also run shops, showrooms and supermarkets which are licensed by the municipal corporation. These people hire supervisors and helpers to run their business smoothly. 

Several workers are permanently employed in private companies, factories, offices and government departments. They get a regular monthly salary.

These employees are also entitled to other benefits such as savings for old age, holidays as well as annual leave and medical facilities.   

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