Direct and Indirect Speech In types of sentences
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Different types of sentences
When you use reported speech, you either report:
      statements
      questions
      requests / commands
      other types
When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:
  • pronouns
  • tense
  • place and time expression

1- Pronouns

In reported speech, you often have to change the pronoun depending on who says what.
Example:
She says, “My dad likes roast chicken.” – She says that her dad likes roast chicken.

B. Reporting Questions

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:
  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)
Also note that you have to:
  • transform the question into an indirect question
  • use the question word (where, when, what, how) or if / whether
 
"Why" don’t you speak English?” He asked me why I didn’t speak English.
 

C. Reporting requests / commands

 
When transforming requests and commands, check whether you have to change:
  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions
Direct speech Reported speech
“Nancy,do the exercise.“ He told Nancy to do the exercise.
"Nancy, give me your pen, please." He asked Nancy to give him her pen.
 
Tenses are not relevant for requests – simply use to  / not to + verb (infinitive without "to")

Example:
She said, “Sit down." - She asked me to sit down.
She said, "don't be lazy" - She asked me not to be lazy
 

Summary

Different types of sentences
When you use reported speech, you either report:
      statements
      questions
      requests / commands
      other types
When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:
  • pronouns
  • tense
  • place and time expression

1- Pronouns

In reported speech, you often have to change the pronoun depending on who says what.
Example:
She says, “My dad likes roast chicken.” – She says that her dad likes roast chicken.

B. Reporting Questions

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:
  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)
Also note that you have to:
  • transform the question into an indirect question
  • use the question word (where, when, what, how) or if / whether
 
"Why" don’t you speak English?” He asked me why I didn’t speak English.
 

C. Reporting requests / commands

 
When transforming requests and commands, check whether you have to change:
  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions
Direct speech Reported speech
“Nancy,do the exercise.“ He told Nancy to do the exercise.
"Nancy, give me your pen, please." He asked Nancy to give him her pen.
 
Tenses are not relevant for requests – simply use to  / not to + verb (infinitive without "to")

Example:
She said, “Sit down." - She asked me to sit down.
She said, "don't be lazy" - She asked me not to be lazy
 
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