Assertive sentences in Indirect Speech
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Assertive sentences in Indirect Speech

Declarative Sentences

When turning declarative sentences into indirect speech, we need to pay attention to the following points:

1.Changing the pronounsExample:
   He said: I saw a famous TV presenter.
    He said (that) he had seen a famous TV presenter.

2. Changing the information about time and place (see the table at the end of this page)

   Example:
   He said, “I saw a famous TV presenter here yesterday.” 
   He said (that) he had seen a famous TV presenter there the day before.

3. Changing the tense (backshift)

    Example:
   He said, “She was eating an ice-cream at the table where you are sitting.”

   He said (that) she had been eating an ice-cream at the table where I was sitting.


4. Changing the Tense (backshift)
    If the introductory clause is in the simple past (e.g. He said), the tense has to be set         back by one degree (see the table). The term for this in English is backshift.

Example:

He said, “I work every day.”

He said that he worked every day.

He said, “I saw a TV presenter.”

He said that he had seen a TV presenter.

He said, “She was sitting where you are sitting.”

He said that she had been sitting where I was sitting

Direct speech                                                         Indirect speech

simple present                                                           simple past

present progressive                                                    past progressive

simple past                                                               past perfect simple

present perfect simple                                               past perfect simple

past progressive                                                        past perfect progressive

present perfect progressive                                       past perfect progressive

future I (going to)                                                      was / were going to                     future I (will)                                  conditional I (would) conditional I (would)



NOTE; The verbs could, should, would, might, must, needn’t, ought to, used to normally do not change.

Example:
He said, “I could have asked her for an autograph.”
He said that he could have asked her for an autograph.

SUMMARY

Declarative Sentences

When turning declarative sentences into indirect speech, we need to pay attention to the following points:

1.Changing the pronounsExample:
   He said: I saw a famous TV presenter.
    He said (that) he had seen a famous TV presenter.

2. Changing the information about time and place (see the table at the end of this page)

   Example:
   He said, “I saw a famous TV presenter here yesterday.” 
   He said (that) he had seen a famous TV presenter there the day before.

3. Changing the tense (backshift)

    Example:
   He said, “She was eating an ice-cream at the table where you are sitting.”

   He said (that) she had been eating an ice-cream at the table where I was sitting.


4. Changing the Tense (backshift)
    If the introductory clause is in the simple past (e.g. He said), the tense has to be set         back by one degree (see the table). The term for this in English is backshift.

Example:

He said, “I work every day.”

He said that he worked every day.

He said, “I saw a TV presenter.”

He said that he had seen a TV presenter.

He said, “She was sitting where you are sitting.”

He said that she had been sitting where I was sitting

Direct speech                                                         Indirect speech

simple present                                                           simple past

present progressive                                                    past progressive

simple past                                                               past perfect simple

present perfect simple                                               past perfect simple

past progressive                                                        past perfect progressive

present perfect progressive                                       past perfect progressive

future I (going to)                                                      was / were going to                     future I (will)                                  conditional I (would) conditional I (would)



NOTE; The verbs could, should, would, might, must, needn’t, ought to, used to normally do not change.

Example:
He said, “I could have asked her for an autograph.”
He said that he could have asked her for an autograph.

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