With the kings and kingdoms flourishing in India, development of villages also began. By this time, iron had been discovered and was used to make iron tools for farming. Iron axes were used to clear forest and create fields, iron shovels tongs, picks, sickles and ploughs were used to increase the yield.
New irrigation methods were also implemented like tanks, dams, wells, canals and artificial lakes were built for better crop production. Better agricultural facilities benefitted the farmers who easily paid their taxes and revenues, which was then used by the kings to raise armies and built palaces and forts.
However, not every farmer owned a land. The rich farmers were called as grama bhojaka in the north while in south they were called as vellalar, who looked at the village administration. Small, independent farmers were in north known as grihapatis and in south as uzhavars. The landless labourers were called as dasa karmakara and kadaisiyar or adimai in north and south respectively and worked in the farms owned by the rich farmers.
Every Indian village apart from the laborers and farmers had potters, carpenters, weavers and blacksmiths. Certain powerful men were also appointed as the village heads and tax collectors by the king.