People are usually described on the basis of the place they belong to, the language they speak and the work they do. The Rig Veda too composed by Aryans describes people according to their occupation.
Priests who performed rituals and taught Vedas were called ‘Brahmins’. Kings or Warriors who fought for protecting their people and capturing land and cattle, were collectively known as Kshatriyas.
However, the individual kings were called Rajas; Rajas living in the Aryan times were hugely different from those living in the later periods. A Raja had no capital cities, armies or palaces in the Aryan time and was elected by the people.
The people who worked as traders, farmers, artisans and crafts persons were known as ‘Vaishyas’. The Rig Veda mentions of ‘Shudras’, people who did tedious tasks and served the Brahmins, Kshatriyas and the Vaishyas.
The Shudras included Dasas or Dasyus, the original inhabitants of the Indian Subcontinent before the arrival of the Aryans. The Dasas or Dasyus were called so, as they were considered as opponents and differed in culture and language. The Aryans later captured them in wars and considered their personal property.
The Rig Veda uses the word ‘Kula’ to indicate individual families. The word ‘Vish’ is used to indicate a clan formed by various kulas while the word ‘Jana’ is used to describe tribes formed by bringing together many Vish.