Parts of a Flower
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Flowers
A flower is the reproductive part of a plant. It is the most attractive part of the plant. Different parts of a flower include sepals, petals, stamens and pistil. Parts of a flower can be grouped into two categories namely, accessory whorls and essential whorls.
  • Accessory whorls are also called as vegetative whorls which include sepals and petals.
  • Essential whorls are also called as reproductive whorls which include stamens and pistil.

Complete and incomplete flowers
A flower can be complete or incomplete based on the number of whorls present in it.
  • Complete flowers are the flowers which possess all the four whorls on it.
  • Incomplete whorls are the whorls which do not possess any one or more of the four whorls.

Unisexual and bisexual flowers
Flowers can be unisexual or bisexual based on the reproductive structures present in it.
  • Unisexual flowers are the flowers which have either one of the reproductive structure i.e. either the stamen, male reproductive structure or the pistil, female reproductive structure. Flower is termed to be a male flower if it has only stamens. It is termed to be female flower if it has only pistil.
  • Bisexual flowers are the flowers which have both male and female reproductive structures, stamens and pistil in them. Bisexual flowers are also called as hermaphrodite flowers.

Sepals
These are hard, leaf-like structures around the base of a flower.
  • They protect the bud before it blooms into a flower.
  • These are green in colour in most of the plants.
  • The sepals are collectively called as calyx.
  • The number of sepals varies from plant to plant.

Petals
These are brightly coloured portions of a flower.
  • They petals are collectively called as corolla.
  • They are brightly coloured so as to attract insects and birds for pollination.
  • The number of petals is almost equal to the number of sepals in a flower.
  • In some flowers, the petals and sepals combine to form a round structure called as tepal.

Stamens
The stamens are the male reproductive parts of a flower. Stamen is made up of a filament and anther.
  • Anther is a bilobed structure at the tip of the filament.
  • Anther contains male reproductive cells, the pollen grains.
  • Pollen grains are the male reproductive cells which are very light, that they can be carried away by wind.
  • Pollen grain has a thick covering made up of two layers, outer exine and inner intine.

Pistil
The pistil is the female reproductive part of a flower. It is made up of the stigma, the style and the ovary.
  • Stigma is a bulged sticky structure at the tip of the pistil. As it is sticky it receives pollen grains from the male reproductive structure.
  • Style is a long tube like structure which allows pollen grain to travel from stigma to ovule, the egg cell.
  • Ovary is a large lobed structure at the base of the carpel. It contains the female reproductive cells, the ovules. The number and arrangement of ovules differ in different flowering plants. 

Summary


Flowers
A flower is the reproductive part of a plant. It is the most attractive part of the plant. Different parts of a flower include sepals, petals, stamens and pistil. Parts of a flower can be grouped into two categories namely, accessory whorls and essential whorls.
  • Accessory whorls are also called as vegetative whorls which include sepals and petals.
  • Essential whorls are also called as reproductive whorls which include stamens and pistil.

Complete and incomplete flowers
A flower can be complete or incomplete based on the number of whorls present in it.
  • Complete flowers are the flowers which possess all the four whorls on it.
  • Incomplete whorls are the whorls which do not possess any one or more of the four whorls.

Unisexual and bisexual flowers
Flowers can be unisexual or bisexual based on the reproductive structures present in it.
  • Unisexual flowers are the flowers which have either one of the reproductive structure i.e. either the stamen, male reproductive structure or the pistil, female reproductive structure. Flower is termed to be a male flower if it has only stamens. It is termed to be female flower if it has only pistil.
  • Bisexual flowers are the flowers which have both male and female reproductive structures, stamens and pistil in them. Bisexual flowers are also called as hermaphrodite flowers.

Sepals
These are hard, leaf-like structures around the base of a flower.
  • They protect the bud before it blooms into a flower.
  • These are green in colour in most of the plants.
  • The sepals are collectively called as calyx.
  • The number of sepals varies from plant to plant.

Petals
These are brightly coloured portions of a flower.
  • They petals are collectively called as corolla.
  • They are brightly coloured so as to attract insects and birds for pollination.
  • The number of petals is almost equal to the number of sepals in a flower.
  • In some flowers, the petals and sepals combine to form a round structure called as tepal.

Stamens
The stamens are the male reproductive parts of a flower. Stamen is made up of a filament and anther.
  • Anther is a bilobed structure at the tip of the filament.
  • Anther contains male reproductive cells, the pollen grains.
  • Pollen grains are the male reproductive cells which are very light, that they can be carried away by wind.
  • Pollen grain has a thick covering made up of two layers, outer exine and inner intine.

Pistil
The pistil is the female reproductive part of a flower. It is made up of the stigma, the style and the ovary.
  • Stigma is a bulged sticky structure at the tip of the pistil. As it is sticky it receives pollen grains from the male reproductive structure.
  • Style is a long tube like structure which allows pollen grain to travel from stigma to ovule, the egg cell.
  • Ovary is a large lobed structure at the base of the carpel. It contains the female reproductive cells, the ovules. The number and arrangement of ovules differ in different flowering plants. 

Videos

Activities



Activity 1
Sciencekids.co.nz has created a virtual lab to make the activity on 'Parts of a flower' understandable. It gives the student a clear-cut idea aout the different parts of a flower with necessary labels.  It allows the user to do the dissection and separate the parts by just dragging and dropping the particular part into particular label. There ios also an added advantage to the student for self analysis. It helps the user to remember the flower along with all its parts in simple manner.   
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Activity 2
Wales.gov.uk has composed an user interface to demonstrate the parts of the flower. It has divided the entire audio-visual session into three parts. The first part has an drag and drop activity for the students to know about different parts of the flower. The second part is an interactive drag and drop option to know about different stages in the life cycle of a plant. The third part allows the student to label the process involved in the life cycle of a plant.  
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References

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