Notes On Participles - CBSE Class 7 English Grammar
Present participle The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the base form of the verb. Note the changes in spelling: read » reading  study » studying  grow » growing relax » relaxing Perfect participle The perfect participle indicates that the time of the action that it refers to is before that of the verb in the main clause: Having taken the wrong turn, he ended up in a dangerous neighbourhood. (having taken refers to a time before ended up: After he had taken the wrong turn, he ended up in a dangerous neighbourhood.)   Past participle The past participle is also called the third form of the verb. With regular verbs, the past participle is formed by adding -ed to the base form. Note the changes in spelling: look » looked stay » stayed bite » bitten fly » flown hit » hit leave » left swim » swum Having been nominated three times for an Oscar, he is one of today's most acclaimed film directors.(He has been nominated three times for an Oscar, and he is one of today's most acclaimed film directors.)

#### Summary

Present participle The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the base form of the verb. Note the changes in spelling: read » reading  study » studying  grow » growing relax » relaxing Perfect participle The perfect participle indicates that the time of the action that it refers to is before that of the verb in the main clause: Having taken the wrong turn, he ended up in a dangerous neighbourhood. (having taken refers to a time before ended up: After he had taken the wrong turn, he ended up in a dangerous neighbourhood.)   Past participle The past participle is also called the third form of the verb. With regular verbs, the past participle is formed by adding -ed to the base form. Note the changes in spelling: look » looked stay » stayed bite » bitten fly » flown hit » hit leave » left swim » swum Having been nominated three times for an Oscar, he is one of today's most acclaimed film directors.(He has been nominated three times for an Oscar, and he is one of today's most acclaimed film directors.)
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