THE PRESENT PERFECT IS USED TO DESCRIBE
- An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present. I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= and I still do.)
- An action performed during a period that has not yet finished. She has beento the cinema twice this week (= and the week isn't over yet.)
- A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now. We have visited Portugal several times.
- An action that was completed in the very recent past, expressed by 'just'. I have just finished my work.
- An action when the time is not important. He has read 'War and Peace'. (= the result of his reading is important)
ACTIONS STARTED IN THE PAST AND CONTINUING IN THE PRESENT
They haven't lived
here for years.
She has worked
in the bank for five years.
WHEN THE TIME PERIOD REFERRED TO HAS NOT FINISHED
I have worked
hard this week
It has rained
a lot this year
We haven't seen
ACTIONS REPEATED IN AN UNSPECIFIED PERIOD BETWEEN THE PAST AND NOW.
They have seen
that film six times
We have eaten
at that restaurant many times.
ACTIONS COMPLETED IN THE VERY RECENT PAST (+JUST)
Have you just finished
I have just eaten
WHEN THE PRECISE TIME OF THE ACTION IS NOT IMPORTANT OR NOT KNOWN
Someone has eaten my soup
Have you seen
'Gone with the Wind'?
Japanese, Russian, and English.