Forests that grow between the mid-latitudinal coastal regions are called temperate evergreen forests. Temperate evergreen forests experience a moderate climate.
The rainfall in these forests is intense in the cool winter months. The summers are mild and relatively dry. These forests are commonly found along the eastern boundaries of the continents like south-east USA, south China and south-east Brazil. Both hard and soft wood trees like oak, pine, fir and eucalyptus grow here.
As we move towards higher altitudes, near the middle latitudes around the globe, the forests become cool and wet. These forests are called temperate deciduous forests. Temperate deciduous forests are found in the north eastern part of USA, China, New Zealand, Chile and also the coastal regions of Western Europe.
Huge trees, such as oak, ash, maple, beech, chestnut, hickory, elm, basswood and linden, are commonly found here. Animals such as bears, deer, foxes, wolves and weasels are found here. Birds like pheasants, monals, bald eagles, red-tailed hawks and turkeys are also found here.
The cold woodlands found in Northern Asia are called coniferous forests. These are also called Taiga or boreal forests. Taiga covers about 15% of the earth’s land surface and is the largest land habitat on the earth. These forests experience long and severe spells of winters. The summers are very short.
Tall, cone-bearing softwood evergreen trees like Chir, pine, cedar, needle leaf, coniferous or gymnosperm, fir and spruce are some of the important varieties of trees found in these forests. The regions with tall, thick shrubs are called Mediterranean forests or Chapparal.
They are also found outside the actual Mediterranean region in California in the USA, south west Africa and south western parts of South America and South west Australia. These regions experience hot dry summers and mild rainy winters.