Between 1206 and 1526, the Delhi Sultanate fought many battles to expand its region. The administration and integration of such a vast kingdom required reliable administrators. Earlier rulers appointed their heirs, chieftains and aristocrats as governors, but Sultan Iltutmish started appointing special slaves called bandagan for administration and military services.
The Khaljis and Tughluqs along with using the slaves raised ordinary people to high positions like governors and generals. The loyalty of these administrators to their masters led to political instability in the region.
The rulers assigned military commanders the job of regional governors. Each region was called iqta, and the governor was called iqtadar or muqti.
The muqti were appointed for a period of time and were responsible for maintaining law and order in their region, leading military campaigns, and collecting tax.
Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq brought the hinterland of the cities under their control, and imposed their authority on the local chieftains and rich landlords called samanthas. The land was reassessed and collection of land revenue was brought under the control of the state. Now, the local chieftains could not impose tax on the subjects, and were themselves forced to pay tax.
The rights of the local chieftains to impose tax were revoked, and they were forced to pay tax. As per the state law taxes were imposed on cultivation, known as Kharaj, cattle and houses. However, the region under the Sultan was continuously increasing, but many areas faced instability as the newly conquered regions would soon gain independence after being conquered.