The Mongol Empire was established by Genghis Khan in 1206 and controlled Asia and Europe. He attacked the Delhi Sultanate under the rule of Sultan Alauddin Khalji and later under Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq.
Both the rulers had different strategies to overcome the Mongol threat. If Alauddin Khalji used a defensive strategy, Muhammad bin Tughluq used an offensive strategy. Alauddin, as per his defensive strategy constructed a new garrison town called Siri for his troops. Muhammad bin Tughluq, shifted his capital, including the residents, from Delhi to Daulatabad rather than establishing a new garrison town for soldiers.
While Alauddin collected tax in the form of farm produce to feed his army, Muhammad bin Tughluq introduced the first token currency of India.
Alauddin, one of the best administrators, also prescribed rates at which goods could be sold, and controlled the market price so that people could buy their supplies at a reasonable rate. He hence sustained the morale of his army and his people, and gain more support from them while defeating the Mongols.
Alauddin proved to be a successful administrator, while Muhammad Tughluq was a failure at it. However, it was Muhammad bin Tughluq who decided to attack the Mongol Empire.
After the Tughluqs, the Sayyids and Lodis ruled the Delhi Empire. However, by their time many new independent kingdoms emerged like Malwa, Bengal, Gondawana, Gujrat, Rajputs and Vijaynagar. One such ruler was Sher Shah Suri, who defeated Humayun and established the Suri Dynasty in Delhi.
Though Sher Shah’s rule lasted for just 6 years, he built a strong administrative foundation which was later even adopted by Emperor Akbar.