The medieval period saw rise and fall of many great empires. By 700 AD, the Indian subcontinent was divided into many separate regions with distinct language and culture. This is evident from the writings of Amir Khusrau, a notable musician and poet in the court of Delhi Sultanate. He also noted that Sanskrit was studied by the Brahmins alone.
Regions were also associated with specific ruling dynasties like the Rajputs in Rajasthan, Palas in Bengal and Bihar, Pratiharas in Avanti and Gujarat, and Rashtrakutas over north Deccan. This was the period when rulers of dynasties like the Cholas, Khaljis, the Tughluqs and the Mughals extended their empires.
However, all the dynasties were not equally stable and successful to rule over large kingdoms and control people of different regions. After the decline of the Mughal Empire in the 18th century, regional states such as Malwa, Bengal, Gujarat and Mewar re-emerged.
Between 700 and 1750 AD, many regions grew, and successfully retained their identity.