A constitution is a list of principles that the people of a country agree upon as the basis of how they want to be governed. An important function of the constitution is to define the nature of a country’s polity.
The constitution gives equal rights to all people irrespective of religion, race, caste, gender and place of birth.
The important features of constitution are:
- Federalism- More than one level of government exists in India i.e. the central government, the state government and the local state government or panchayati raj.
- Parliamentary form of government- The people of India can vote for and elect their representatives to lead the country.
- Separation of powers- There are three state organs i.e. the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. The legislature refers to the Indian parliament which consists of the elected representatives. The executive branch is responsible for running the government. The judiciary refers to the system of courts in India.
- Fundamental rights- The right to equality, the right to freedom, the right against exploitation, the right to freedom of religion, right to cultural and educational rights, and the right to constitutional remedies.
- Secularism- Ensures that no particular religion is promoted as the state religion.
The Right to Equality is one of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by the Indian Constitution.