Water is a vital renewable natural resource. Water keeps getting recycled from one form into another, so the total volume of water on the earth remains constant. Water evaporates from the oceans to transform into water vapour and falls back on the land through precipitation.
3/4th of the earth’s surface is covered by water and of this water, 2/3rd is in the oceans. However, the ocean water is salty and not suitable for drinking. Only fresh water is used for drinking.
Fresh water makes up only 2.7% of the total water available on the earth from which a maojiry oart is covered in ice in Greenland and Antarctica. Hence only 1% of the freshwater can actually be used as drinking water.
Freshwater can be found in: groundwater, surface water in rivers and lakes and water vapour in the atmosphere.
The factors responsible for the ever growing need of water are: Rising population, which leads to a greater demand for food and cash crops, Increasing urbanization and Rise in the standard of living.
Contamination of water can be due to the following reasons: release of untreated or semi-treated sewage, Agricultural chemicals and Industrial effluents.
There are various steps that can be taken to conserve water and prevent it from getting pollute: to ensure that effluents are treated properly before being discharged into water bodies, increasing forest cover and vegetation, rainwater harvesting, Canals should be properly lined, Sprinklers should be used for irrigation, methods like drip or trickle irrigation should be employed.