Before independence, the Indian National Congress had promised people that every major linguistic group would have its own province.
However, after independence, the country was divided into two nations and therefore, the Indian National Congress did not act on its promise of creating linguistic provinces.
This gave rise to strong protests, especially from the Telugu speakers of the Madras Presidency. Veteran Gandhian Potti Sriramulu went on a hunger strike to demand the formation of a separate state of Andhra for Telugu speakers but died after 58 days of fasting. This caused riots and protests.
Eventually, the new state of Andhra Pradesh was born on October 1, 1953. Encouraged by the success of the Telugu speakers, other linguistic communities also began to demand separate states.
The government set up a States Reorganisation Commission to redraw district and provincial boundaries based on the language spoken in these areas.