In Bengal in March 1859, with thousands of ryots started a rebellion against indigo cultivation known as the blue rebellion or the indigo revolt. The ryots armed with spears, bows and arrows and swords attacked the indigo factories and planters.
The blue rebellion began just two years after the great revolt of 1857 and it worried the British.
The rebellion prompted the government to bring in the military to safeguard the planters and to set up the indigo commission to investigate further into the situation.
After the blue rebellion, indigo production in Bengal collapsed, and the indigo planters shifted base to Bihar.
In 1917, Gandhiji visited Champaran in Bihar and moved by the plight of the ryots, initiated a movement against the indigo planters, known as the Champaran movement.