By the 18th century, Mahatma Gandhi recognized global recognition for his non-violent marches against racist discrimination in South Africa. After coming to India in 1916, he travelled around trying to understand the problems faced by people.
The First World War started and this changed the economic and political situation of India. As the war expenses increased, the British increased taxes in India. This resulted in an increase in food prices and many villagers were forced to join the British Army. The soldiers returned to India with a desire to end the colonial rule.
Indians were also influenced by the ideas of socialism being propagated in the Russian Revolution of 1917. In 1917, Gandhiji initiated the Champaran Movement and the Kheda Satyagraha and led a movement for the mill workers in Ahmedabad, in 1918.
These movements were followed by the Rowlatt Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act. Both Gandhiji and Mohammad Ali Jinnah opposed the Rowlatt Act and called to observe the 6th April, 1919, as a day of non-violent opposition. This became the first all-India fight against the British rule.
The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and the Khilafat Movement triggered the next step towards mass nationalism, The Non-Cooperation Movement. It was led by the Mahatma Gandhi and the leaders of the Khilafat agitation, Jinnah and Shaukat Ali.
The Non-Cooperation Movement gained momentum between the years 1921 and 1922. All these events through the years 1915 to 1922 saw the growth of mass nationalism in India.