On the 4th February, 1922, the peasants of Chauri Chaura, set fire to a police station, killing 22 policemen. Gandhiji, saddened by this incident, called off the Non-Cooperation Movement as this was against his ideals of non-violence and satyagraha.
With the end of the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Congress called upon its supporters to take up constructive work in villages. A group of radical leaders like Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru wanted to fight the elections and make their presence known to the government.
Gandhi’s managed to gather huge support of the masses in the mid-1920s. Two prominent organizations, the Communist Party of India (CPI) and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) were formed during this period.
Bhagat Singh and his comrades formed the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in 1928 to fight against the colonial rule. In 1929, the Congress, under Jawaharlal Nehru, vowed to fight for complete independence or Purna Swaraj, and observed 26th January, 1930, as Independence Day.
On the 12th March, 1930, Gandhiji led a non-violent march from the Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi to protest against the salt tax imposed by the colonial government. On reaching Dandi, Gandhiji collected sea water and boiled it to produce salt, thereby breaking the salt law.
The government declared provincial autonomy in many provinces and declared elections in these provinces in 1937. The Congress formed governments in 7 out of the 11 provinces.
Two years after the Congress formed the government, the Second World War broke out in 1939. The Congress was ready to support the colonial government in the war in return for complete independence at the end of the war. The British government didn’t give in, leading many Congress leaders to resign from the ministries in protest.