Notes On Life of Tribals - CBSE Class 8 History
The Baigas, Khonds, Bhils, Van Gujjars, Santhals, Mundas, Nagas and Banjaras are some important tribes of India who by the 19th century, undertook occupations depending on the topography and the climate of a region.

Tribes like the Khonds and the Baigas of central India were into shifting or Jhum cultivation along with hunting and gathering forest produce. 

Tribes settled in the forested and mountainous regions of central and north-east India, also practiced shifting cultivation. These tribes never settled in one place, and were always on the lookout for new lands for growing crops.

While the women took up tasks like gathering forest products, collecting wood, clearing fields, and preparing oil and liquor, the men were into hunting, preparing the fields and growing crops.

The Bakarwals of Kashmir, Labadis of Andhra Pradesh, Van Gujjars of Punjab and Gaddis of Kulu reared animals like goats, cows and sheep. They moved from one region to another when the grass in a region got exhausted due to a change in the season.

Tribes like the Mundas of Chottanagpur took to permanent or settled cultivation even before the 19th century. They used ploughs and grew crops on the same piece of land year after year, and gradually acquired the rights over these lands.

Summary

The Baigas, Khonds, Bhils, Van Gujjars, Santhals, Mundas, Nagas and Banjaras are some important tribes of India who by the 19th century, undertook occupations depending on the topography and the climate of a region.

Tribes like the Khonds and the Baigas of central India were into shifting or Jhum cultivation along with hunting and gathering forest produce. 

Tribes settled in the forested and mountainous regions of central and north-east India, also practiced shifting cultivation. These tribes never settled in one place, and were always on the lookout for new lands for growing crops.

While the women took up tasks like gathering forest products, collecting wood, clearing fields, and preparing oil and liquor, the men were into hunting, preparing the fields and growing crops.

The Bakarwals of Kashmir, Labadis of Andhra Pradesh, Van Gujjars of Punjab and Gaddis of Kulu reared animals like goats, cows and sheep. They moved from one region to another when the grass in a region got exhausted due to a change in the season.

Tribes like the Mundas of Chottanagpur took to permanent or settled cultivation even before the 19th century. They used ploughs and grew crops on the same piece of land year after year, and gradually acquired the rights over these lands.

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