Notes On Agriculture - CBSE Class 8 Science
Agriculture It is the systematic use of basic practices to grow the crops which provide food. Crop Crop is the group of same kind of plants grown and cultivated at one place in significant quantities. Crops are grown to obtain food which can be sold for money. Crops can yield grains, pulses, vegetables, ornamental plants etc. Healthy crops require provision of resources like carbon dioxide, water, sunlight and nutrients provided by nature. Types of crops All crops cannot grow in  the same season. Different crops have their own suitable climatic conditions and specific requirements. Crops in India are broadly classified into two categories namely kharif crops and rabi crops. In addition to these two crops there is another category called as zaid crops.                             Agricultural practices Agricultural practices are a collection of principles that are applied as on-farm production and the post-production processes to produce safe and healthy food. Agricultural practices include certain steps shown.             Soil preparation: It involves loosening of the soil or turning it. This process enables the roots to penetrate easily. It aerates the roots by providing the air trapped in between the particles of soil. It also provides favourable conditions for the growth of worms and microorganisms which increase the fertility of the soil.        •  Ploughs are used for tilling the soil, adding manure and fertilisers and for scraping the soil.        •  Leveller is used to level the soil to prevent it from soil erosion. A plank is used to break the crumbs into fine soil.         •  Hoe was used for tilling in olden days, but these days we use it only to remove weeds.        •  Cultivator pulled by a tractor, is also used to break the soil. Seed selection: It is done to separate healthy seeds from damaged seeds.        •  Healthy seeds contain more nutrients. Seed health refers to the absence of disease-causing organisms such as fungi, nematodes, bacteria, viruses and insects.        •  Damaged seeds are hollow, discoloured and contain fewer nutrients. Seed selection is done by soaking the seeds in a container. It can also be used to maintain and improve the quality of the crop variety. The selection of plants is based on characteristics such as the size of the plant, the colour or size of the fruits, the bulk number of grains per year, etc. Sowing: It is the process of addition of seeds into the soil. Seeds are sown in the field by two methods namely, broadcasting and transplanting.                BROADCASTING              TRANSPLANTING Seeds are sown either by hand or by using a seed drill. Developing young plants on a nursery bed and transfer of seedlings on to a field with proper spacing. It is done either by hand or a seed drill. Seed drill can be a traditional seed drill or a modern seed drill. It is done mainly in case of paddy crop. Broadcasting is done by both traditional methods and modern methods.        •  Traditional seed drill contains a funnel-shaped container through which seeds pass and get placed into the soil.        •  Modern seed drills sow seeds at a proper depth and distance, and cover them with a layer of soil. Nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to a usable size. These saplings are transplanted on to a field at regular spacing. Bananas are first sown in a nursery, and later the saplings are planted to the field.

#### Summary

Agriculture It is the systematic use of basic practices to grow the crops which provide food. Crop Crop is the group of same kind of plants grown and cultivated at one place in significant quantities. Crops are grown to obtain food which can be sold for money. Crops can yield grains, pulses, vegetables, ornamental plants etc. Healthy crops require provision of resources like carbon dioxide, water, sunlight and nutrients provided by nature. Types of crops All crops cannot grow in  the same season. Different crops have their own suitable climatic conditions and specific requirements. Crops in India are broadly classified into two categories namely kharif crops and rabi crops. In addition to these two crops there is another category called as zaid crops.                             Agricultural practices Agricultural practices are a collection of principles that are applied as on-farm production and the post-production processes to produce safe and healthy food. Agricultural practices include certain steps shown.             Soil preparation: It involves loosening of the soil or turning it. This process enables the roots to penetrate easily. It aerates the roots by providing the air trapped in between the particles of soil. It also provides favourable conditions for the growth of worms and microorganisms which increase the fertility of the soil.        •  Ploughs are used for tilling the soil, adding manure and fertilisers and for scraping the soil.        •  Leveller is used to level the soil to prevent it from soil erosion. A plank is used to break the crumbs into fine soil.         •  Hoe was used for tilling in olden days, but these days we use it only to remove weeds.        •  Cultivator pulled by a tractor, is also used to break the soil. Seed selection: It is done to separate healthy seeds from damaged seeds.        •  Healthy seeds contain more nutrients. Seed health refers to the absence of disease-causing organisms such as fungi, nematodes, bacteria, viruses and insects.        •  Damaged seeds are hollow, discoloured and contain fewer nutrients. Seed selection is done by soaking the seeds in a container. It can also be used to maintain and improve the quality of the crop variety. The selection of plants is based on characteristics such as the size of the plant, the colour or size of the fruits, the bulk number of grains per year, etc. Sowing: It is the process of addition of seeds into the soil. Seeds are sown in the field by two methods namely, broadcasting and transplanting.                BROADCASTING              TRANSPLANTING Seeds are sown either by hand or by using a seed drill. Developing young plants on a nursery bed and transfer of seedlings on to a field with proper spacing. It is done either by hand or a seed drill. Seed drill can be a traditional seed drill or a modern seed drill. It is done mainly in case of paddy crop. Broadcasting is done by both traditional methods and modern methods.        •  Traditional seed drill contains a funnel-shaped container through which seeds pass and get placed into the soil.        •  Modern seed drills sow seeds at a proper depth and distance, and cover them with a layer of soil. Nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to a usable size. These saplings are transplanted on to a field at regular spacing. Bananas are first sown in a nursery, and later the saplings are planted to the field.

#### Activities

Activity 1 Learnthings.co.za has formulated a small interactive module to make the user understand the concept of  'Soil in agriculture'.Though it is a simple module, the activity insists on ill-effects of certain practices. User ha to drag from one column and draw a line with the help of mouse and drop on the matching pair on the other side of the page.It also specifies the important points to remember.  Go to Activity Activity 2 Iitm.ac.in  has devised a template on the concept 'Agriculture'. Scroll over on the side panel and click on the 'Activity' button to perform activities.Click on any topic to view the animation or slide show about the topic highlighted. Activities can be Fillups, Croos word or Drag and Drop. In addition to the animation there is a side pane which displays the notes about the slide in focus. There is a search button to navigate through the topics displayed. Go to Activity Activity 3 Nios.ac.in has provided a clear animation about the 'Crop seasons in India.Though description is continuous, it makes the topic clear to the student. Examples are shown in labelled figure format aside the notes. Go to Activity

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