Notes On Harvest and Storage - CBSE Class 8 Science
Crops to grains As the crop matures, it has to be cut from the main plant. Grains have to be collected from the crop and the waste should be separated from them. The entire process is a stepwise procedure.                                               Harvesting: The process which involves cutting of mature crop to gather grains is known as harvesting.         •  Harvesting can be done manually by using a sickle.  A sickle is a small instrument with sharp serrate-edged metal blade attached to a wooden handle.          •  Harvesting can also be done by using a machine called as harvester.                         Threshing: It is the process of separating the grains from the straw and chaff.        •  A thresher is used for threshing.        •  A combine is a combination of a thresher and a harvester. Winnowing: It is a process of making natural wind to blow through the grains which allows the lighter substances to fly away leaving the heavier grains which fall on to the ground. Winnowing can be done manually. It can also be done by winnowing machine which has a fan to blow away the chaff. Crop protection and storage:        •  Protection of crops against microorganisms, rodents, pests and moisture is done by drying in sun and exposing to fumes.        •  Harvested grains should be protected from moisture. Moisture promotes the microbial growth. Grains should be properly dried in the sunlight until they possess just 14% of moisture.        •  Silos are huge, air-tight cylindrical structures used to store grains.        •  Stored grains are damaged by rodents which consume at about 20% of the crop. Granaries are large rooms built above ground level to prevent rodents and pests from getting near the grains.        •  Stored grains are also damaged by worms and insects. Neem leaves are spread or neem powder is sprayed to keep away the insects from the storage area.        •  In cold storage, vegetables and fruits are stored at low temperatures. Animal husbandry: Rearing and breeding livestock on a large scale to obtain food and other products from them. It includes dairy farming, poultry farming, pisciculture, sericulture, piggery etc. Animal husbandry is the practice employed to increase the production of animal products by livestock. Animal husbandry includes feeding, breeding, and disease control of livestock animals. Advantages of animal husbandry As animal husbandry is scientific management of farm animals, it serves many uses for human beings.        •  It helps in enhancing milk production        •  It increases egg production        •  It increases meat production        •  It increases fish production        •  It helps in proper management of agricultural wastes.

#### Summary

Crops to grains As the crop matures, it has to be cut from the main plant. Grains have to be collected from the crop and the waste should be separated from them. The entire process is a stepwise procedure.                                               Harvesting: The process which involves cutting of mature crop to gather grains is known as harvesting.         •  Harvesting can be done manually by using a sickle.  A sickle is a small instrument with sharp serrate-edged metal blade attached to a wooden handle.          •  Harvesting can also be done by using a machine called as harvester.                         Threshing: It is the process of separating the grains from the straw and chaff.        •  A thresher is used for threshing.        •  A combine is a combination of a thresher and a harvester. Winnowing: It is a process of making natural wind to blow through the grains which allows the lighter substances to fly away leaving the heavier grains which fall on to the ground. Winnowing can be done manually. It can also be done by winnowing machine which has a fan to blow away the chaff. Crop protection and storage:        •  Protection of crops against microorganisms, rodents, pests and moisture is done by drying in sun and exposing to fumes.        •  Harvested grains should be protected from moisture. Moisture promotes the microbial growth. Grains should be properly dried in the sunlight until they possess just 14% of moisture.        •  Silos are huge, air-tight cylindrical structures used to store grains.        •  Stored grains are damaged by rodents which consume at about 20% of the crop. Granaries are large rooms built above ground level to prevent rodents and pests from getting near the grains.        •  Stored grains are also damaged by worms and insects. Neem leaves are spread or neem powder is sprayed to keep away the insects from the storage area.        •  In cold storage, vegetables and fruits are stored at low temperatures. Animal husbandry: Rearing and breeding livestock on a large scale to obtain food and other products from them. It includes dairy farming, poultry farming, pisciculture, sericulture, piggery etc. Animal husbandry is the practice employed to increase the production of animal products by livestock. Animal husbandry includes feeding, breeding, and disease control of livestock animals. Advantages of animal husbandry As animal husbandry is scientific management of farm animals, it serves many uses for human beings.        •  It helps in enhancing milk production        •  It increases egg production        •  It increases meat production        •  It increases fish production        •  It helps in proper management of agricultural wastes.

#### Activities

Activity 1 Crida.in has created a template which shows a design to explain different concepts of agriculture.This activity just allows the user to click on the 'Next' button and wait for the slide to get displayed. Animation is shown by clicking on the 'Play' button. This is an e-learning module which explains about sustainable management in agriculture. Go to Activity Activity 2 Jocuri-y8.ro has compiled a wonderful game to show the working of a 'Harvester' which is displayed at the lower half of the screen. The template gives instructions as how to play the game. Click on the 'Start' button to enter the game. Make use of arrow keys to play the game. Credits will also be given to the user. It is a game which shows the functioning of the harvester which is used to harvest crop chaffs from the field. Go to Activity Activity 3 Jocuri-y8.ro has created a game to display the working of a 'Combine' which is displayed at the bottom of the screen. Instructions are given as how to play the game. Click on the 'Play' button to enter the game. Make use of arrow keys to play the game. Credits will also be given to the user. It is a game which shows the functioning of the Combine which is used to harvest crop chaffs and separate the grains from it. Go to Activity

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