Changes during Puberty
Growth is a natural process which involves physical and mental development of an organism. There is certain stage in the life of every individual human being called as puberty. Puberty:  It is the time during which there occur sexual and physical changes which allow the transition of a child to an adult. Puberty starts at the beginning of adolescence. The onset of puberty starts much earlier in girls, between 8 and 13 years of age, whereas it starts between 10 and 14 years of age in boys and lasts upto 2 to 4 years. Changes during puberty        •  The onset of puberty is marked by physical changes.        •  Sweat glands become active and start producing more sweat.        •  Pimples or acne appear due to increased action of sebaceous glands or oil glands.        •  The sex organs grow and become functionally active. The testes start producing male gametes, called sperms. The ovaries grow and release one mature ovum in a periodic cycle of 28 days.        •  Puberty is marked with an increase in size of the penis with respect to different ages in males. The development of breasts is observed in females.        •  Brain is very active and so will have a greater capacity to learn.        •  Puberty also results in mental and intellectual maturity. Change in height during puberty:     Adolescence: It is the period of life between the onset of puberty and reaching adulthood, that is, the period that leads to reproductive maturity.  Changes during adolescence Almost all the changes which occur during puberty are included as the changes in adolescence. This is because puberty is a transition period which occurs at the beginning of adolescence stage. After the age of ten years, an individual becomes an adolescent and experiences a lot of physical changes in the body. a) Changes in boys:        •  Boys increase in height as legs grow faster than other parts of the body.        •  Development of strong muscles.        •  Shape of the body changes as a result of broadening of shoulders and widening of chest.        •  There is a typical change in the voice due to enhanced growth in larynx forming a protruding structure called as Adam’s apple. Boys develop deep voice.        •  Active working of sweat glands resulting in the formation of sweat.        •  Sebaceous glands secrete much of oil which makes the skin glowing. Sometimes it also results in acne.        •  Intellectual, emotional and psychological maturity is attained.        •  Development of reproductive organs to produce gametes and secrete reproductive hormones.        •  Growth of facial hair and body hair under arm pits and pubic region. b) Changes in girls:        •  Girls exhibit rapid increase in height due to faster growth of legs.        •  Development of shaped muscles.        •  Development of broad shoulders and narrow waist.        •  Development of high pitched voice.        •  Sweat glands are active secreting lot of sweat.        •  Sebaceous glands secrete lot of oil and leads to development of pimples.        •  Growth of hair in the pubic region and under arm pits.        •  Ovaries are active in the formation of follicles. They also secrete female sex hormones. Females are mature and active in their reproductive phase.        •  Development of mammary glands under the influence of oestrogen hormone.        •  Females exhibit menstrual cycle during their reproductive phase. First menstrual flow is called as ‘menarche’. Termination of menstruation is called as ‘menopause’.  Secondary sexual characters : These are the characters that are used to distinguish a male from a female.        •  Growth of facial hair and body hair in males. Growth of hair in the pubic region in females.        •  Broadening of shoulders and widening of chest in males. Widening of waist and narrowing of  hip in females.        •  Breast development in females.        •  Mood swings in both the sexes. Both boys and girls attain mental and emotional maturity. Brain is active and brain has capability of learning more.

#### Summary

Growth is a natural process which involves physical and mental development of an organism. There is certain stage in the life of every individual human being called as puberty. Puberty:  It is the time during which there occur sexual and physical changes which allow the transition of a child to an adult. Puberty starts at the beginning of adolescence. The onset of puberty starts much earlier in girls, between 8 and 13 years of age, whereas it starts between 10 and 14 years of age in boys and lasts upto 2 to 4 years. Changes during puberty        •  The onset of puberty is marked by physical changes.        •  Sweat glands become active and start producing more sweat.        •  Pimples or acne appear due to increased action of sebaceous glands or oil glands.        •  The sex organs grow and become functionally active. The testes start producing male gametes, called sperms. The ovaries grow and release one mature ovum in a periodic cycle of 28 days.        •  Puberty is marked with an increase in size of the penis with respect to different ages in males. The development of breasts is observed in females.        •  Brain is very active and so will have a greater capacity to learn.        •  Puberty also results in mental and intellectual maturity. Change in height during puberty:     Adolescence: It is the period of life between the onset of puberty and reaching adulthood, that is, the period that leads to reproductive maturity.  Changes during adolescence Almost all the changes which occur during puberty are included as the changes in adolescence. This is because puberty is a transition period which occurs at the beginning of adolescence stage. After the age of ten years, an individual becomes an adolescent and experiences a lot of physical changes in the body. a) Changes in boys:        •  Boys increase in height as legs grow faster than other parts of the body.        •  Development of strong muscles.        •  Shape of the body changes as a result of broadening of shoulders and widening of chest.        •  There is a typical change in the voice due to enhanced growth in larynx forming a protruding structure called as Adam’s apple. Boys develop deep voice.        •  Active working of sweat glands resulting in the formation of sweat.        •  Sebaceous glands secrete much of oil which makes the skin glowing. Sometimes it also results in acne.        •  Intellectual, emotional and psychological maturity is attained.        •  Development of reproductive organs to produce gametes and secrete reproductive hormones.        •  Growth of facial hair and body hair under arm pits and pubic region. b) Changes in girls:        •  Girls exhibit rapid increase in height due to faster growth of legs.        •  Development of shaped muscles.        •  Development of broad shoulders and narrow waist.        •  Development of high pitched voice.        •  Sweat glands are active secreting lot of sweat.        •  Sebaceous glands secrete lot of oil and leads to development of pimples.        •  Growth of hair in the pubic region and under arm pits.        •  Ovaries are active in the formation of follicles. They also secrete female sex hormones. Females are mature and active in their reproductive phase.        •  Development of mammary glands under the influence of oestrogen hormone.        •  Females exhibit menstrual cycle during their reproductive phase. First menstrual flow is called as ‘menarche’. Termination of menstruation is called as ‘menopause’.  Secondary sexual characters : These are the characters that are used to distinguish a male from a female.        •  Growth of facial hair and body hair in males. Growth of hair in the pubic region in females.        •  Broadening of shoulders and widening of chest in males. Widening of waist and narrowing of  hip in females.        •  Breast development in females.        •  Mood swings in both the sexes. Both boys and girls attain mental and emotional maturity. Brain is active and brain has capability of learning more.

#### Activities

Activity 1 Edjudo.com has brought in interactive session which provides us lot of information about the concept 'Sexual Reproduction in Human Beings'. It provides information about different body phenomena like 'Puberty and Adolescence'. It also threw light upon the tips and uses of maintaining 'Reproductive Health'. It also analyses common diseases of reproductive system. It provides some guidelines to adolescents to maintain their 'Personal Hygiene and Reproductive Health'. Go to Activity Activity 2 Kidshealth.org has designed a simple but informative template to emphasise the concept of 'Sexual Health'.The template provides various web links for different topics related to sexual health for the children who are termed be adolescents. The student has to click on the topics listed under the category with name 'Your changing body'. Information is given separately to guide both boys and girls.  Go to Activity

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