Mahatma Gandhi was not a part of the constituent assembly, but his ideas on an eliminating inequality were spelt out in his magazine – the Young Indian as early as 1931.
A Preamble shows what the Constitution aims at and is the introductory part of the Constitution. The Constitution of India is a living document that undergoes amendments. The Preamble begins with ‘We, the People of India…… signifies power is vested in the hands of the people.
The Preamble to the Indian Constitution lays emphasis on the ideals of Sovereignty, Socialism, Secularism and Democratic Republic.
- Sovereign: A nation when it is free in its internal matters from any foreign interference and its external policies are guided by its own interests.
- Socialist: This emphasizes the equitable distribution of national income to all sections of people.
- Secular: This means all religions have equal respect.
- Democratic: People have the right to elect their representatives.
- Republic: The head of the state is an elected person with no hereditary right.
- Delimits the scope of activity of various organs of the government. The rights granted to people are given prime importance.
- Envisions Social, Economic and Political Justice for all citizens of the country.
- Would ensure all liberties necessary for the individual i.e. freedom of thought and expression, faith, belief and of worship.
- Would strive for equality of opportunity and status and safeguard their dignity.
- Would promote a sense of fraternity or brother hood.
- Unity and integrity of the nation would be the hallmark of the efforts of the government.
The Indian Constitution has three categories of amending procedure. Amendments can be carried out through simple majority of members present and voting before sending to President for assent.
Amendments can only be carried out by two-third majority of members present and voting of each House before it is sent to the President. Sometimes not only two-third majority of members present in both Houses but also approval of 50% of the state legislatures is required before sending it to the President.