A drought occurs when there is acute shortage of water. Droughts that happen in India can be broadly divided into two categories. They are severe and general droughts.
Droughts are severe when rainfall in an area is below 50% of the average rainfall. When an area receives rainfall that is 25% less than the average rainfall, it is termed as a General Drought.
Based on their features and causes, droughts have been divided into three types. They are the Seasonal Drought, the Water Drought and the Agricultural Drought.
Seasonal Drought occurs when there’s little rain for a prolonged period. Lack of water in water resources such as rivers, lakes and ponds is called a Water Drought and lack of crops is called an Agricultural Drought.
The most common factor for a drought is scarce rain or no rain at all. Destruction of forests is another reason for droughts.
Over use of agricultural land is another cause of droughts. Less vegetation also leads to droughts. Depleting ground water level accompanied by the absence of rain also leads to a drought. We can store rain water to prevent droughts. We should plant more trees to avoid droughts. Nearly 35% of land should be earmarked as green belts.
Water supply to the agricultural fields in the parched regions can be increased by rainwater harvesting, canal irrigation and building contour bunds. Planting trees, harvesting rainwater, building dams to store excess rain water and crop insurance are some of the measures that we can take to cope with droughts.