Notes On Introduction to Drainage System - CBSE Class 9 Geography

Drainage systems of India

 

Drainage systems refers  to the well defined channels of a river system in an area.India is a country of rivers.There are different rivers and river systems in India that form the drainage system of India. 

 

The Indian drainage system can be divided into two major groups.

 

  • The Himalayan Rivers

  • The Peninsular Rivers

 

 


 

 

The Himalayan Rivers

 

The three main rivers that come under the himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.These rivers are very long and are joined by many of its tributaries.

 

 

The Indus Valley System

 

  • The Indus originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu in the Tibetan region at an altitude of 4,164 m in the Kailash Mountain range.

  • The total length of the Indus River system is 2,880 km (in India 1,114 km).

  • The Indus, which is also known as the Sindhu, is the westernmost of the Himalayan Rivers in India.

  • Major tributaries of Indus are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Zaskar, the Hunza, the Nubra, the Shigar and the Dras in the upper part.

  • In the lower part, the Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab, and the Jhelum are the major tributaries of the Indus.

  • The Jhelum, an important tributary of the Indus, rises from a spring at Verinag situated at the foot of the Pir Panjal.

  • The Jhelum flows through Srinagar and the Wular Lake before entering into Pakistan.

 

 

The Ganga River System

 

  • The total length of the Ganga in India is 2,525 km, which is shared by Uttarakhand (110 km); Uttar Pradesh (1,450 km); Bihar (445 km); and West Bengal (520 km).

  • The Ganga river system is the largest river system in India.

  • The Ganga originates from the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh (3,900 m) in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand.

  • However, the river, when it originates from the Gangotri glacier is known as the Bhagirathi.

  • At Devprayag, the Bhagirathi merges with another river, i.e., the Alaknanda; and from here, it is known as the Ganga.

  • The Alaknanda originates from the Satopanth glacier above Badrinath.

  • The major tributaries of the Alaknanda are the Dhauli and the Vishnu Ganga; these two rivers meet at Joshimath/Vishnu Prayag.

  • Some other tributaries of the Alaknanda are the Pindar (joins at KarnaPrayag), the Mandakini or Kali Ganga (joins at RudraPrayag).


 

The Brahmaputra River System

 

  • The Brahmaputra originates from the Chemayungdung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar Lake.

  • The Brahmaputra enters into India near the west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh.

  • Major left bank tributaries of the Brahmaputra are Lohit, Dibang or Sikang, Burhi Dihing, and Dhansari.

  • Major right bank tributaries of the Brahmaputra are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manas, and Sankosh.

 

 

The Peninsular Rivers

 

  • The Peninsular drainage system is older than the himalayan rivers.

  • The Western Ghats, which runs from north to south close to the western coast, forms the main water divide in Peninsular India.

  • The major rivers of the Peninsula which flow into the Bay of Bengal include the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri. 

  • The Narmada and the Tapi are the only long rivers which flow west and make estuaries.

  • The Mahanadi originates from Sihawa in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh and runs through Madhya Pradesh and Odisha and finally discharges its water into the Bay of Bengal.

  • The total length of Mahanadi is 851 km.

  • Popularly known as the Dakshin Ganga, the Godavari is the largest peninsular river system.

  • The Godavari originates from Nasik district of Maharashtra and discharges its water into the Bay of Bengal.

  • With a total 1,465 km length, Godavari covers the areas of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Andhra Pradesh.

  • The Kaveri originates from the Brahmagiri hills.

  • The river Kaveri’s total course of 770 km commands a basin area of 8.8 million hectare mha, of which, 3% lies in Kerala, 41% lies in Karnataka, and 56% lies in Tamil Nadu.

  • Major tributaries of the Kaveri are the Kabini, the Bhavani, and the Amravati.

  • The Narmada originates from the western flank of the Amarkantak plateau (1,057 m).

  • Flowing through a rift valley located between the Satpura in the south and the Vindhya range in the north, the Narmada forms Dhuandhar waterfall and a picturesque gorge of marble rocks near Jabalpur.

  • Luni is the longest river system of Rajasthan.

  • Primarily, Luni originates in the Pushkar valley of the Aravalli range, Rajasthan in two branches, i.e. the Saraswati and the Sabarmati; which join each other at Govindgarh. From here, the river is known as Luni.

  • Some small rivers flowing towards the West are the Shetruniji, the Bhadra, Dhadhar, Sabarmati, Mahi, Vaitarna, Kalinadi, Dedti, Sharavati, Mandovi, Juari, Bharathapuzha, Periyar, etc.

  • Some small rivers flowing towards the East are Subarnarekha, Baitarni, Brahmani, Penner, and Palar.


 

Summary

Drainage systems of India

 

Drainage systems refers  to the well defined channels of a river system in an area.India is a country of rivers.There are different rivers and river systems in India that form the drainage system of India. 

 

The Indian drainage system can be divided into two major groups.

 

  • The Himalayan Rivers

  • The Peninsular Rivers

 

 


 

 

The Himalayan Rivers

 

The three main rivers that come under the himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.These rivers are very long and are joined by many of its tributaries.

 

 

The Indus Valley System

 

  • The Indus originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu in the Tibetan region at an altitude of 4,164 m in the Kailash Mountain range.

  • The total length of the Indus River system is 2,880 km (in India 1,114 km).

  • The Indus, which is also known as the Sindhu, is the westernmost of the Himalayan Rivers in India.

  • Major tributaries of Indus are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Zaskar, the Hunza, the Nubra, the Shigar and the Dras in the upper part.

  • In the lower part, the Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab, and the Jhelum are the major tributaries of the Indus.

  • The Jhelum, an important tributary of the Indus, rises from a spring at Verinag situated at the foot of the Pir Panjal.

  • The Jhelum flows through Srinagar and the Wular Lake before entering into Pakistan.

 

 

The Ganga River System

 

  • The total length of the Ganga in India is 2,525 km, which is shared by Uttarakhand (110 km); Uttar Pradesh (1,450 km); Bihar (445 km); and West Bengal (520 km).

  • The Ganga river system is the largest river system in India.

  • The Ganga originates from the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh (3,900 m) in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand.

  • However, the river, when it originates from the Gangotri glacier is known as the Bhagirathi.

  • At Devprayag, the Bhagirathi merges with another river, i.e., the Alaknanda; and from here, it is known as the Ganga.

  • The Alaknanda originates from the Satopanth glacier above Badrinath.

  • The major tributaries of the Alaknanda are the Dhauli and the Vishnu Ganga; these two rivers meet at Joshimath/Vishnu Prayag.

  • Some other tributaries of the Alaknanda are the Pindar (joins at KarnaPrayag), the Mandakini or Kali Ganga (joins at RudraPrayag).


 

The Brahmaputra River System

 

  • The Brahmaputra originates from the Chemayungdung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar Lake.

  • The Brahmaputra enters into India near the west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh.

  • Major left bank tributaries of the Brahmaputra are Lohit, Dibang or Sikang, Burhi Dihing, and Dhansari.

  • Major right bank tributaries of the Brahmaputra are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manas, and Sankosh.

 

 

The Peninsular Rivers

 

  • The Peninsular drainage system is older than the himalayan rivers.

  • The Western Ghats, which runs from north to south close to the western coast, forms the main water divide in Peninsular India.

  • The major rivers of the Peninsula which flow into the Bay of Bengal include the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri. 

  • The Narmada and the Tapi are the only long rivers which flow west and make estuaries.

  • The Mahanadi originates from Sihawa in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh and runs through Madhya Pradesh and Odisha and finally discharges its water into the Bay of Bengal.

  • The total length of Mahanadi is 851 km.

  • Popularly known as the Dakshin Ganga, the Godavari is the largest peninsular river system.

  • The Godavari originates from Nasik district of Maharashtra and discharges its water into the Bay of Bengal.

  • With a total 1,465 km length, Godavari covers the areas of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Andhra Pradesh.

  • The Kaveri originates from the Brahmagiri hills.

  • The river Kaveri’s total course of 770 km commands a basin area of 8.8 million hectare mha, of which, 3% lies in Kerala, 41% lies in Karnataka, and 56% lies in Tamil Nadu.

  • Major tributaries of the Kaveri are the Kabini, the Bhavani, and the Amravati.

  • The Narmada originates from the western flank of the Amarkantak plateau (1,057 m).

  • Flowing through a rift valley located between the Satpura in the south and the Vindhya range in the north, the Narmada forms Dhuandhar waterfall and a picturesque gorge of marble rocks near Jabalpur.

  • Luni is the longest river system of Rajasthan.

  • Primarily, Luni originates in the Pushkar valley of the Aravalli range, Rajasthan in two branches, i.e. the Saraswati and the Sabarmati; which join each other at Govindgarh. From here, the river is known as Luni.

  • Some small rivers flowing towards the West are the Shetruniji, the Bhadra, Dhadhar, Sabarmati, Mahi, Vaitarna, Kalinadi, Dedti, Sharavati, Mandovi, Juari, Bharathapuzha, Periyar, etc.

  • Some small rivers flowing towards the East are Subarnarekha, Baitarni, Brahmani, Penner, and Palar.


 

Videos

References

Previous
Next