Notes On Biodiversity - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife - CBSE Class 9 Geography
A plant community that has grown naturally without human aid is called natural vegetation. Natural vegetation that has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time is called virgin vegetation. Sacred groves are forests that have been protected for ages by traditional societies. Virgin vegetation that is purely Indian is known as endemic or indigenous species. Plants that have come from outside India are termed exotic plants like some species of orchids. Biodiversity in a region typically refers to its flora as well as fauna. Flora refers to the plants of a particular region or period. Fauna is the collective term for the species of animals in a particular region or period. Biodiversity is caused by relief, climate and ecosystem in a region. Relief in a region includes the land and the soil type found there. Different types of soils provide the basis for different types of vegetation. Climate refers to three aspects of a region, the temperature, the photoperiod or duration of sunlight, and precipitation. These aspects, along with the soil and land type, determine the type and extent of vegetation. As the temperatures rises, the type of vegetation slowly changes. The factors that determine the duration of sunlight are: The latitude of a region, The altitude of a region, and The duration of the day. Areas of heavy rainfall typically have more dense vegetation as compared to areas of less rainfall.

#### Summary

A plant community that has grown naturally without human aid is called natural vegetation. Natural vegetation that has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time is called virgin vegetation. Sacred groves are forests that have been protected for ages by traditional societies. Virgin vegetation that is purely Indian is known as endemic or indigenous species. Plants that have come from outside India are termed exotic plants like some species of orchids. Biodiversity in a region typically refers to its flora as well as fauna. Flora refers to the plants of a particular region or period. Fauna is the collective term for the species of animals in a particular region or period. Biodiversity is caused by relief, climate and ecosystem in a region. Relief in a region includes the land and the soil type found there. Different types of soils provide the basis for different types of vegetation. Climate refers to three aspects of a region, the temperature, the photoperiod or duration of sunlight, and precipitation. These aspects, along with the soil and land type, determine the type and extent of vegetation. As the temperatures rises, the type of vegetation slowly changes. The factors that determine the duration of sunlight are: The latitude of a region, The altitude of a region, and The duration of the day. Areas of heavy rainfall typically have more dense vegetation as compared to areas of less rainfall.

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