The Himalayas are geologically young fold mountains covering the northern border of India. The Himalayan range is the highest and the most rugged mountain range in the world.
The Himalayas are formed from three parallel ranges of mountains:
- The Himadri,
- The Himachal and
- The Shiwaliks.
The Himadri also called the Great or Inner Himalayas, is the northern most range of the Himalayas. This range is in a single, unbroken line and has the highest peaks like Mount Everest and Mount Godwin Austin.
Several glaciers, such as the Gangotri and the Siachen, originate from this range. The Zoji La pass is situated in the Great Himalayan range and serves as the only link between Ladakh and Kashmir.
The next range the Himachal, is located south of the Greater Himalayas. The height of mountains in this range is between 3700 and 4500 metres hence is also referred to as the Lesser Himalayas! In other words, the Himachal is made up of altered rocks. The Pir Panjal is the longest range in the Lesser Himalayas. The Dhaula Dhar and the Mahabharat are other ranges famous for their beauty. The Himalayas are also divided into regions from east to west.
The area between the Indus and the Sutlej is traditionally known as the Punjab Himalaya. Nanga Parbat is the highest peak in Punjab Himalaya.
The Kumaon Himalayas is the name used regionally for the portion of the Himalayas between the Sutlej and the Kali rivers. Nanda Devi is the highest peak in this region.
The area that lies between the Kali and the Tista rivers is known as the Nepal Himalayas. The Assam Himalayas refer to the region between the Tista and the Dihang rivers.
The division of the Himalayas on the east is called the Purvanchal or the Eastern Hills and Mountains. The Brahamputra forms the eastern most boundary of the Purvanchal region. The Purvanchal range is made up of the Patkai hills, the Naga hills, the Manipur hills and the Mizo hills.