Notes On The Northern Plain - CBSE Class 9 Geography
 NORTHERN PLAINS The northern plains are an important physical division of India. It is also known as Indo - Gangetic plains. Location and Extent The Northern Plains are situated to the south of the himalayas.It is formed by the silt deposited by the Himalayas and its tributaries. These plains are the largest alluvial tract in the world.These plains extend approximately 3200 km from west to east. The average width of these plains varies between 150 and 300 km.     Formation of Northern Plains The Northern Plain was formed by the deposits brought in the three major Himalayan rivers(Ganga,Indus and Brahmaputra) and their tributaries. These rivers resulted in the transport and deposition of smaller fragments of rock in the foothills of the Himalayas. Alluvium has been deposited in the foothills of the Himalayas for millions of years now. These deposits are the fertile Northern Plains.   Major Properties   The northern plain is one of the largest and most fertile plain of India. It is one of the World’s most intensively farmed areas. They are located between the Himalayan rivers in the north and the Peninsular Plateau in the south. Due to its suitable farming properties, it is highly populated. The land is generally flattish. The northern plains have the Indus river system in the west and the Ganga Brahmaputra river system in the east. The Northern Plains is divided into four regions - Bhabar,Terai,Bhangar and Khadar. The water table in this region is very high.   Physiographic Divisions             The Northern Plains can be divided into three major zones. The Bhabar It lies along the foothills of the Shiwaliks from the Indus to the Tista.  It is about 8-16 kms wide. The rivers descending from the himalayas deposit their loads along the foothills in the form of alluvial fans. The most unique feature of bhabar is its porosity. It is porous due to deposition of a huge number of pebbles and rock debris across the alluvial fans.   It is not so suitable for agriculture             2.The Tarai It lies to the south of Bhabar and runs parallel to it. It is around 20-30kms wide. It has comparatively finer alluvium and is covered by forests. This area receives high rainfall and has excessive humidity. It has underground streams which makes the ground marshy. Most parts of Tarai are suitable for agriculture. It is suitable for the cultivation of wheat,maize,rice.sugarcane,etc.           3.The Alluvial Plains            The alluvial plains can further be divided into the Khadar and the Bhangar.         i.The Khadar It contains the  new alluvial deposit along the course of the river.    It is enriched by the fresh deposits of silts every year. The land silt consists of mud,clay and sand. It is suitable for extensive cultivation.                                 ii.The Bhangar It covers large parts of the northern plains. It's the older alluvium along the river beds.     This area lies above the flood limits of the river. It is rich in humus and gives high yield. The soil contains calcium carbonate nodules called ‘Kankars’ which are impure in nature.    REGIONAL DIVISIONS It is divided into three major parts  The Indus and its tributaries This includes the jhelum,the Chenab,the Ravi,the Beas,the Sutlej - originate in the Himalaya.This part of the Northern plain is also called as Punjab Plain. The Ganga Plain The Ganga plain lies in between the Ghagar and the Tista river. The Brahmaputra Plain      It lies in the state of Assam.   Significance of this region It supports over 40 percent of the total population of the country. Punjab,Haryana and the western part of  Uttar Pradesh is known as the granary of India. The rivers here have gentle gradients which makes them navigable over long distances. The sedimentary rocks of plains contain petroleum and natural gas deposits.

Summary

 NORTHERN PLAINS The northern plains are an important physical division of India. It is also known as Indo - Gangetic plains. Location and Extent The Northern Plains are situated to the south of the himalayas.It is formed by the silt deposited by the Himalayas and its tributaries. These plains are the largest alluvial tract in the world.These plains extend approximately 3200 km from west to east. The average width of these plains varies between 150 and 300 km.     Formation of Northern Plains The Northern Plain was formed by the deposits brought in the three major Himalayan rivers(Ganga,Indus and Brahmaputra) and their tributaries. These rivers resulted in the transport and deposition of smaller fragments of rock in the foothills of the Himalayas. Alluvium has been deposited in the foothills of the Himalayas for millions of years now. These deposits are the fertile Northern Plains.   Major Properties   The northern plain is one of the largest and most fertile plain of India. It is one of the World’s most intensively farmed areas. They are located between the Himalayan rivers in the north and the Peninsular Plateau in the south. Due to its suitable farming properties, it is highly populated. The land is generally flattish. The northern plains have the Indus river system in the west and the Ganga Brahmaputra river system in the east. The Northern Plains is divided into four regions - Bhabar,Terai,Bhangar and Khadar. The water table in this region is very high.   Physiographic Divisions             The Northern Plains can be divided into three major zones. The Bhabar It lies along the foothills of the Shiwaliks from the Indus to the Tista.  It is about 8-16 kms wide. The rivers descending from the himalayas deposit their loads along the foothills in the form of alluvial fans. The most unique feature of bhabar is its porosity. It is porous due to deposition of a huge number of pebbles and rock debris across the alluvial fans.   It is not so suitable for agriculture             2.The Tarai It lies to the south of Bhabar and runs parallel to it. It is around 20-30kms wide. It has comparatively finer alluvium and is covered by forests. This area receives high rainfall and has excessive humidity. It has underground streams which makes the ground marshy. Most parts of Tarai are suitable for agriculture. It is suitable for the cultivation of wheat,maize,rice.sugarcane,etc.           3.The Alluvial Plains            The alluvial plains can further be divided into the Khadar and the Bhangar.         i.The Khadar It contains the  new alluvial deposit along the course of the river.    It is enriched by the fresh deposits of silts every year. The land silt consists of mud,clay and sand. It is suitable for extensive cultivation.                                 ii.The Bhangar It covers large parts of the northern plains. It's the older alluvium along the river beds.     This area lies above the flood limits of the river. It is rich in humus and gives high yield. The soil contains calcium carbonate nodules called ‘Kankars’ which are impure in nature.    REGIONAL DIVISIONS It is divided into three major parts  The Indus and its tributaries This includes the jhelum,the Chenab,the Ravi,the Beas,the Sutlej - originate in the Himalaya.This part of the Northern plain is also called as Punjab Plain. The Ganga Plain The Ganga plain lies in between the Ghagar and the Tista river. The Brahmaputra Plain      It lies in the state of Assam.   Significance of this region It supports over 40 percent of the total population of the country. Punjab,Haryana and the western part of  Uttar Pradesh is known as the granary of India. The rivers here have gentle gradients which makes them navigable over long distances. The sedimentary rocks of plains contain petroleum and natural gas deposits.

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