Lenin headed the Soviet Union till his death in 1924. Joseph Stalin took over the reins from him. There was acute shortage of grain in 1927. The government had fixed the price of grain but the peasants did not want to sell to the government at these prices.
Rich peasants or ‘kulaks’ were raided and grain stocks confiscated. Stalin enforced collectivization of farms as solution to grain shortage.
Peasants were forced to work in collective farms called ‘kolkhoz’ sharing the profits equally.
This was not entirely successful as the production of grain did not increase immediately. In 1930, the Soviet Union faced one of the worst famines in history leaving over 4 million people dead.