Russia in 1905 was an autocracy ruled by Tsar Nicholas II. The government had rules regarding minimum wages and limited work hours, many factories and workshops broke the rules. This led to dissatisfaction amongst the workers across Russia.
Peasants too were unhappy. They owned very little land as majority of the land was owned by nobility, the Tsar and the Orthodox Church.
This saw the advent of two prominent political parties, The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party or RSDWP and the Socialist Revolutionary Party.
The RSDWP followed Marx’s ideas and aimed to provide support to workers. It consisted of two groups, Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin and Mensheviks led by Julius Martov.
The Bolsheviks believed in discipline and controlling the quality of the party members, whereas the Mensheviks believed that the party needed to be open to all.
While the RSDWP backed the workers, the Socialist Revolutionary Party believed that peasants would be the driving force behind the revolution. In 1905, the Russians revolted demanding a constituent assembly. The Tsar finally agreed to the creation of the parliament or the Duma.