Lenin and the Bolsheviks seized control of Russia after the October revolution of 1917. The Bolsheviks started working on Lenin’s April Thesis. Although they did not win the election, they continued to remain in power. They nationalized all the banks and brought them under government management. They declared land as social property and returned it to the peasants. They ended the war and brought changes to the army uniforms.
The Bolshevik party renamed themselves as the Russian Communist party. They created the secret police called the Cheka to control possible anti-Bolsheviks. Such decisions led to resistance amongst the people and paved way for the Civil war in Russia.
The Bolsheviks, referred to as the ‘reds’, had two primary opponents. The socialist revolutionists called the ‘greens’ and the pro-tsarists called the ‘whites’. Supporting the whites and the greens were France, America, Britain and Japan.
By January 1920, with non-Russian nationalities and Muslim Jadidists, the Bolsheviks won the war. On December 1922, when the Soviet Union or USSR was created, the non-Russian nationals were given political autonomy.
While the civil war both banks and industries were kept nationalized. They made five year plans centered on economic growth including the fixing of prices to promote industrial growth.