Notes On France Becomes a Republic - CBSE Class 9 History

 

 

When did France become a Republic?

 

After the French Revolution of 1789,the powers of the King were reduced and France became a constitutional monarchy.It was probably a combination of Louis' unwillingness to properly co-operate with the Assembly and try and make it work and the growing radicalism from the political clubs that caused it to fail although the war. It sped this process up and the public protest actually forced it through. It was doomed because Louis was never properly committed which gave Jacobins reason to get rid of him.

 

 

 

Trial & Execution of the King, 1792-1793 

 

 

  • After being kept under what was essentially "house arrest," King Louis XVI and his family made an escape attempt from the Tuileries Palace to Varennes in 1791.

  • The King attempted to flee France and raise an army to retake the country from the revolutionaries. 

  • This degree of planning reveals Louis’ political determination; unfortunately, it was for this determined plot that he was eventually captured and charged with high treason.

  • Louis XVI was officially arrested on 13 August 1792, and sent to the Temple, an ancient fortress in Paris that was used as a prison. 

  • On September 21, the National Constituent Assembly declared France to be a Republic and abolished the Monarchy.

  •  Louis was stripped of all of his titles and honours, and from this date was simply known as Citoyen Louis Capet.

  • Eventually, it was decided that he would undergo a trial in front of the National Convention, a single chamber assembly that replaced the Legislative Assembly in the fall of 1792. 


 

The Reign of Terror, 1793-1794

 

  • The Reign of Terror was a period of violence that occurred after the execution of the King.

  •  It was incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". 

  • This period saw a staggering death toll that ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine (2,639 in Paris), and another 25,000 in summary executions across France.

  • The Reign of Terror also saw the rise of Maximilien Robespierre within the National Convention, and he also became the leader of the Committee for Public Safety. 

  • The Committee for Public Safety was the de facto government during this period, and assumed the role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. 

 

       

 

 

 

Constitution of 1793

 

  • The Constitution of 1793 was the first constitution of the Republican period. 

  • Drafted by the Committee of Public Safety which was enlarged with the purpose of producing it, the text was presented to the National Convention on June 10, 1793 and was subsequently accepted on June 23, 1793.

  • The constitution was then ratified by a popular referendum. 

  • Though the Constitution was overwhelmingly popular, the convention set it aside indefinitely on October 10, 1793 and declared a "Revolutionary Government" until a future peace. 

  • This Constitution was inspired by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789, to which it added several rights, including: the superiority of popular sovreignty over national sovreignty; social rights (e.g. the right of association, right to work and public assistance, right to public education); the right of rebellion; and the abolition of slavery. 

                  

 

 

Execution of the Queen, 1793

 

  • After the execution of Louis XVI, the National Convention turned its attention to the fate of the former Queen, Marie-Antoinette.

  •  While some called for her exile, the Committee of Public Safety called for a public trial. 

  • She was tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on October 14, 1783. 

  • Unlike the king, who had been given ample time to prepare a defence, the queen was given less than one day. 

  • On October 16, 1793, Marie Antoinette was beheaded at the Place de la Révolution. She is considered one of the first victims of the Reign of Terror. 

 

 

 

 

Summary

 

 

When did France become a Republic?

 

After the French Revolution of 1789,the powers of the King were reduced and France became a constitutional monarchy.It was probably a combination of Louis' unwillingness to properly co-operate with the Assembly and try and make it work and the growing radicalism from the political clubs that caused it to fail although the war. It sped this process up and the public protest actually forced it through. It was doomed because Louis was never properly committed which gave Jacobins reason to get rid of him.

 

 

 

Trial & Execution of the King, 1792-1793 

 

 

  • After being kept under what was essentially "house arrest," King Louis XVI and his family made an escape attempt from the Tuileries Palace to Varennes in 1791.

  • The King attempted to flee France and raise an army to retake the country from the revolutionaries. 

  • This degree of planning reveals Louis’ political determination; unfortunately, it was for this determined plot that he was eventually captured and charged with high treason.

  • Louis XVI was officially arrested on 13 August 1792, and sent to the Temple, an ancient fortress in Paris that was used as a prison. 

  • On September 21, the National Constituent Assembly declared France to be a Republic and abolished the Monarchy.

  •  Louis was stripped of all of his titles and honours, and from this date was simply known as Citoyen Louis Capet.

  • Eventually, it was decided that he would undergo a trial in front of the National Convention, a single chamber assembly that replaced the Legislative Assembly in the fall of 1792. 


 

The Reign of Terror, 1793-1794

 

  • The Reign of Terror was a period of violence that occurred after the execution of the King.

  •  It was incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". 

  • This period saw a staggering death toll that ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine (2,639 in Paris), and another 25,000 in summary executions across France.

  • The Reign of Terror also saw the rise of Maximilien Robespierre within the National Convention, and he also became the leader of the Committee for Public Safety. 

  • The Committee for Public Safety was the de facto government during this period, and assumed the role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. 

 

       

 

 

 

Constitution of 1793

 

  • The Constitution of 1793 was the first constitution of the Republican period. 

  • Drafted by the Committee of Public Safety which was enlarged with the purpose of producing it, the text was presented to the National Convention on June 10, 1793 and was subsequently accepted on June 23, 1793.

  • The constitution was then ratified by a popular referendum. 

  • Though the Constitution was overwhelmingly popular, the convention set it aside indefinitely on October 10, 1793 and declared a "Revolutionary Government" until a future peace. 

  • This Constitution was inspired by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789, to which it added several rights, including: the superiority of popular sovreignty over national sovreignty; social rights (e.g. the right of association, right to work and public assistance, right to public education); the right of rebellion; and the abolition of slavery. 

                  

 

 

Execution of the Queen, 1793

 

  • After the execution of Louis XVI, the National Convention turned its attention to the fate of the former Queen, Marie-Antoinette.

  •  While some called for her exile, the Committee of Public Safety called for a public trial. 

  • She was tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on October 14, 1783. 

  • Unlike the king, who had been given ample time to prepare a defence, the queen was given less than one day. 

  • On October 16, 1793, Marie Antoinette was beheaded at the Place de la Révolution. She is considered one of the first victims of the Reign of Terror. 

 

 

 

 

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